Pregnancy complications, mental health-related problems and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Malaysian women

Syed Shahzad Hasan, Kaeshaelya Thiruchelvam, Syed Imran Ahmed, Alexandra M. Clavarino, Abdullah A. Mamun, Therese Kairuz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the association between pregnancy complications, mental health-related problems, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Malaysian women. Materials and methods A case-control study of women with T2DM (n = 160) matched by age range to controls without T2DM (n = 160). Data were collected in the Negeri Sembilan and PutraJaya regions in Malaysia, from two hospital outpatient clinics, PutraJaya Hospital and Tuanku Jaa'far Hospital Seremban, and one health clinic at Seremban. Validated, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to obtain the data. The unadjusted and adjusted estimates were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method. Results Neither depression (RR 0.74, 95% CI: 0.39-1.41) nor anxiety (RR 1.00, 95% CI: 0.53-1.88) symptoms increased the risk of T2DM significantly. However, gestational diabetes (RR 1.35, 95% CI: 1.02-1.79), and ≥3 pregnancies (RR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.08-1.79) were significant risk factors for the development of T2DM. T2DM was not a significant risk factor for either depression (RR 1.26, 95% CI: 0.91-1.74) or anxiety symptoms (RR 1.13, 95% CI: 0.59-2.19). Conclusion In this study, T2DM is not a significant risk factor for depression and anxiety; similarly, neither are depression and anxiety significant risk factors for T2DM. Although prevalence of depression and anxiety is not alarming, the findings reported here should alert clinicians to screen and treat anxiety and depression in people with diabetes and also note the importance of monitoring women with complications in pregnancy for risk of later T2DM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)191-197
Number of pages7
JournalDiabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2013
Externally publishedYes


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