Prevalence and associated factors of overweight and obesity among persons with type 2 diabetes in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Emmanuel Ekpor, Samuel Akyirem, Precious A Duodu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Type 2 diabetes and obesity are serious public health concerns globally and a growing burden in Africa. Both conditions have serious repercussions on health when they co-occur, yet the extent of their co-occurrence in Africa remains unknown. Therefore, this review aimed to identify the prevalence and associated factors of overweight and obesity among per-sons with type 2 diabetes in Africa.

Method: A systematic search was conducted on PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, African Index Medicus (AIM), and African Journals Online (AJOL) for observational studies that reported the prevalence of overweight and/or obesity among type 2 diabetes patients in Africa. The prevalence data from individual studies were aggregated through a random-effects meta-analysis. The Istatistic was used to evaluate between-studies heterogeneity, while subgroup analysis and mixed-effects meta-regression were performed to identify sources of heterogeneity. We assessed publication bias using funnel plots and Egger’s test. This review adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines.

Results: Of 1753 records retrieved, 80 articles were eligible for this review, with 74 cross-sectional studies included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of overweight and obesity was 35.6% and 25.6% respectively, while the overall prevalence of both overweight and obesity was 61.4%. Also, the pooled prevalence of both overweight and obesity across the five geo-graphical areas in Africa ranged from 56.9% in East Africa to 88.5% in Southern Africa. Nineteen factors were significantly associated with overweight and obesity among patients with type 2diabetes.

Conclusion: The high prevalence of overweight and obesity among patients with type 2 diabetes is a significant public health concern that transcends geographical boundaries within Africa. The findings from this review highlight the need for innovative weight management interventions that are tailored to the cultural context of the African setting.

Key Messages:

There was a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among the type 2 diabetes patients.

Nineteen factors were identified to be significantly associated with overweight and obesity among type 2 diabetes patients.

Only 12 out of the 80 included studies primarily focused on the prevalence of overweight and/or obesity which reflects a dearth of interest in this topic.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)696-713
Number of pages18
JournalAnnals of Medicine
Volume55
Issue number1
Early online date23 Feb 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 23 Feb 2023

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