Proving of Bread Dough II: Measurement of Gas Production and Retention

E. Chiotellis, G. M. Campbell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

42 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Dynamic dough density measurements were applied to monitor the rate of production of carbon dioxide gas during proving and its partitioning between the liquid phase and the bubbles in bread dough. The effects of yeast concentration, temperature, mixing speed, headspace pressure and sugar level were investigated. Increasing yeast level increased the rate of carbon dioxide production, as did increasing temperature up to 40°C, beyond which the production rate decreased. Mixing at low pressures resulted in fewer bubbles in the dough and a smaller interfacial area for mass transfer into bubbles; consequently the carbon dioxide concentration in the dough increased rapidly initially. This was followed by rapid growth of the few bubbles present, as a result of the high carbon dioxide concentration in the liquid phase, and sudden and rapid decrease of the dough density. Mixing at higher speeds increased the air content, but gave slightly slower rates of growth of the dough piece. The apparent drop in the rate of carbon dioxide production as proving proceeded was not caused by depletion of sugars, but rather by loss of gas from the dough piece. The results were compared with simulations of proving of bread doughs, giving good qualitative agreement; however, loss of gas from the dough pieces caused the rate of carbon dioxide production to be underestimated and resulted in deviations from the simulations.

LanguageEnglish
Pages207-216
Number of pages10
JournalFood and Bioproducts Processing
Volume81
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2003
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

bread dough
gas production (biological)
Bread
Carbon Dioxide
dough
Carbon dioxide
Gases
bubbles
Sugars
Yeast
gases
Yeasts
Pressure
carbon dioxide
Temperature
yeasts
sugars
Liquids
Growth
liquids

Cite this

@article{33243b54418d41fa8f7005400c4987a3,
title = "Proving of Bread Dough II: Measurement of Gas Production and Retention",
abstract = "Dynamic dough density measurements were applied to monitor the rate of production of carbon dioxide gas during proving and its partitioning between the liquid phase and the bubbles in bread dough. The effects of yeast concentration, temperature, mixing speed, headspace pressure and sugar level were investigated. Increasing yeast level increased the rate of carbon dioxide production, as did increasing temperature up to 40°C, beyond which the production rate decreased. Mixing at low pressures resulted in fewer bubbles in the dough and a smaller interfacial area for mass transfer into bubbles; consequently the carbon dioxide concentration in the dough increased rapidly initially. This was followed by rapid growth of the few bubbles present, as a result of the high carbon dioxide concentration in the liquid phase, and sudden and rapid decrease of the dough density. Mixing at higher speeds increased the air content, but gave slightly slower rates of growth of the dough piece. The apparent drop in the rate of carbon dioxide production as proving proceeded was not caused by depletion of sugars, but rather by loss of gas from the dough piece. The results were compared with simulations of proving of bread doughs, giving good qualitative agreement; however, loss of gas from the dough pieces caused the rate of carbon dioxide production to be underestimated and resulted in deviations from the simulations.",
keywords = "Carbon dioxide production, Dynamic dough density, Mixer headspace pressure, Mixing speeds, Yeast concentration",
author = "E. Chiotellis and Campbell, {G. M.}",
year = "2003",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1205/096030803322437974",
language = "English",
volume = "81",
pages = "207--216",
journal = "Food and Bioproducts Processing",
issn = "0960-3085",
publisher = "Institution of Chemical Engineers",
number = "3",

}

Proving of Bread Dough II : Measurement of Gas Production and Retention. / Chiotellis, E.; Campbell, G. M.

In: Food and Bioproducts Processing, Vol. 81, No. 3, 09.2003, p. 207-216.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Proving of Bread Dough II

T2 - Food and Bioproducts Processing

AU - Chiotellis, E.

AU - Campbell, G. M.

PY - 2003/9

Y1 - 2003/9

N2 - Dynamic dough density measurements were applied to monitor the rate of production of carbon dioxide gas during proving and its partitioning between the liquid phase and the bubbles in bread dough. The effects of yeast concentration, temperature, mixing speed, headspace pressure and sugar level were investigated. Increasing yeast level increased the rate of carbon dioxide production, as did increasing temperature up to 40°C, beyond which the production rate decreased. Mixing at low pressures resulted in fewer bubbles in the dough and a smaller interfacial area for mass transfer into bubbles; consequently the carbon dioxide concentration in the dough increased rapidly initially. This was followed by rapid growth of the few bubbles present, as a result of the high carbon dioxide concentration in the liquid phase, and sudden and rapid decrease of the dough density. Mixing at higher speeds increased the air content, but gave slightly slower rates of growth of the dough piece. The apparent drop in the rate of carbon dioxide production as proving proceeded was not caused by depletion of sugars, but rather by loss of gas from the dough piece. The results were compared with simulations of proving of bread doughs, giving good qualitative agreement; however, loss of gas from the dough pieces caused the rate of carbon dioxide production to be underestimated and resulted in deviations from the simulations.

AB - Dynamic dough density measurements were applied to monitor the rate of production of carbon dioxide gas during proving and its partitioning between the liquid phase and the bubbles in bread dough. The effects of yeast concentration, temperature, mixing speed, headspace pressure and sugar level were investigated. Increasing yeast level increased the rate of carbon dioxide production, as did increasing temperature up to 40°C, beyond which the production rate decreased. Mixing at low pressures resulted in fewer bubbles in the dough and a smaller interfacial area for mass transfer into bubbles; consequently the carbon dioxide concentration in the dough increased rapidly initially. This was followed by rapid growth of the few bubbles present, as a result of the high carbon dioxide concentration in the liquid phase, and sudden and rapid decrease of the dough density. Mixing at higher speeds increased the air content, but gave slightly slower rates of growth of the dough piece. The apparent drop in the rate of carbon dioxide production as proving proceeded was not caused by depletion of sugars, but rather by loss of gas from the dough piece. The results were compared with simulations of proving of bread doughs, giving good qualitative agreement; however, loss of gas from the dough pieces caused the rate of carbon dioxide production to be underestimated and resulted in deviations from the simulations.

KW - Carbon dioxide production

KW - Dynamic dough density

KW - Mixer headspace pressure

KW - Mixing speeds

KW - Yeast concentration

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0142031093&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/food-and-bioproducts-processing

U2 - 10.1205/096030803322437974

DO - 10.1205/096030803322437974

M3 - Article

VL - 81

SP - 207

EP - 216

JO - Food and Bioproducts Processing

JF - Food and Bioproducts Processing

SN - 0960-3085

IS - 3

ER -