This chapter discusses some of the key psychoacoustic principles of vertical stereophony that are relevant to practical applications, such as 3D panning, microphone technique, mixing, and upmixing. It explains the basic mechanism of vertical auditory localization and describes how a vertically orientated stereophonic phantom image is localized. The chapter discusses the perception and rendering of the vertical spatial impression. The “duplex theory” suggests that human auditory localization in the horizontal plane mainly relies on the interaural time difference (ITD) at frequencies below around 1 kHz and interaural level difference (ILD) at higher frequencies due to the head-shadow effect. In horizontal stereophonic reproduction, phantom-image localization essentially relies on the translation of interchannel level difference or/and an interchannel time difference between loudspeaker signals into the ITD and ILD. In the context of concert hall acoustics, the term “spatial impression” is often described to have two main dimensions: apparent source width and listener envelopment.
|Title of host publication||3D Audio|
|Editors||Justin Paterson, Hyunkook Lee|
|Place of Publication||New York|
|Number of pages||17|
|ISBN (Print)||9781138590069, 9781138590038|
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 2021|
|Name||Perspectives on Music Production|