Psychoacoustics of Height Perception in 3D Audio

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


This chapter discusses some of the key psychoacoustic principles of vertical stereophony that are relevant to practical applications, such as 3D panning, microphone technique, mixing, and upmixing. It explains the basic mechanism of vertical auditory localization and describes how a vertically orientated stereophonic phantom image is localized. The chapter discusses the perception and rendering of the vertical spatial impression. The “duplex theory” suggests that human auditory localization in the horizontal plane mainly relies on the interaural time difference (ITD) at frequencies below around 1 kHz and interaural level difference (ILD) at higher frequencies due to the head-shadow effect. In horizontal stereophonic reproduction, phantom-image localization essentially relies on the translation of interchannel level difference or/and an interchannel time difference between loudspeaker signals into the ITD and ILD. In the context of concert hall acoustics, the term “spatial impression” is often described to have two main dimensions: apparent source width and listener envelopment.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication3D Audio
EditorsJustin Paterson, Hyunkook Lee
Place of PublicationNew York
Number of pages17
ISBN (Electronic)9780429491214
ISBN (Print)9781138590069, 9781138590038
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021

Publication series

NamePerspectives on Music Production


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