Psychological morbidity in Nepali cross-border migrants in India: a community based cross-sectional study

Raja Ram Dhungana, Nirmal Aryal, Pratik Adhikary, Radheshyam Krishna Kc, Pramod Raj Regmi, Bikash Devkota, Guna Nidhi Sharma, Kolitha Wickramage, Edwin Van Teijlingen, Padam Simkhada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Since Nepali cross-border migrants can freely enter, work and stay in India, they are largely undocumented. The majority is involved in semi-skilled or unskilled jobs with limited labour rights and social security, a fact which predisposes them to psychological distress. We aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with psychological morbidity among Nepali migrants upon their return from India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in six districts of Nepal between September 2017 and February 2018. A total of 751 participants who had worked at least six months in India and returned to Nepal were interviewed from 24 randomly selected clusters. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 was used to measure the psychological morbidity. Data were analysed using Poisson regression analysis. Results: The majority was younger than 35 years (64.1%), male (96.7%), married (81.8%), had at least a primary education (66.6%), and belonged to Dalit, Janajati and religious minorities (53.7%). The prevalence of psychological morbidity was 13.5% (CI: 11.2-16.1%). Participants aged 45 years and above (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 2.74), from the Terai (aPR = 3.29), a religious minority (aPR = 3.64), who received no sick leave (aPR = 2.4), with existing health problems (aPR = 2.0) and having difficulty in accessing health care (aPR = 1.88) were more likely than others to exhibit a psychological morbidity. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that psychological morbidity was prevalent in the study participants and varied significantly with individual characteristics, work conditions and health. Multifaceted approaches including psychological counselling for returnees and protection of labour and health rights in the workplace are recommended to help reduce psychological morbidity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1534
Number of pages9
JournalBMC Public Health
Volume19
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2019

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India
Cross-Sectional Studies
Psychology
Morbidity
Nepal
Health
Sick Leave
Social Security
Workplace
Counseling
Regression Analysis
Delivery of Health Care
Education

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Dhungana, Raja Ram ; Aryal, Nirmal ; Adhikary, Pratik ; Kc, Radheshyam Krishna ; Regmi, Pramod Raj ; Devkota, Bikash ; Sharma, Guna Nidhi ; Wickramage, Kolitha ; Van Teijlingen, Edwin ; Simkhada, Padam. / Psychological morbidity in Nepali cross-border migrants in India : a community based cross-sectional study. In: BMC Public Health. 2019 ; Vol. 19, No. 1.
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title = "Psychological morbidity in Nepali cross-border migrants in India: a community based cross-sectional study",
abstract = "Background: Since Nepali cross-border migrants can freely enter, work and stay in India, they are largely undocumented. The majority is involved in semi-skilled or unskilled jobs with limited labour rights and social security, a fact which predisposes them to psychological distress. We aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with psychological morbidity among Nepali migrants upon their return from India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in six districts of Nepal between September 2017 and February 2018. A total of 751 participants who had worked at least six months in India and returned to Nepal were interviewed from 24 randomly selected clusters. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 was used to measure the psychological morbidity. Data were analysed using Poisson regression analysis. Results: The majority was younger than 35 years (64.1{\%}), male (96.7{\%}), married (81.8{\%}), had at least a primary education (66.6{\%}), and belonged to Dalit, Janajati and religious minorities (53.7{\%}). The prevalence of psychological morbidity was 13.5{\%} (CI: 11.2-16.1{\%}). Participants aged 45 years and above (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 2.74), from the Terai (aPR = 3.29), a religious minority (aPR = 3.64), who received no sick leave (aPR = 2.4), with existing health problems (aPR = 2.0) and having difficulty in accessing health care (aPR = 1.88) were more likely than others to exhibit a psychological morbidity. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that psychological morbidity was prevalent in the study participants and varied significantly with individual characteristics, work conditions and health. Multifaceted approaches including psychological counselling for returnees and protection of labour and health rights in the workplace are recommended to help reduce psychological morbidity.",
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author = "Dhungana, {Raja Ram} and Nirmal Aryal and Pratik Adhikary and Kc, {Radheshyam Krishna} and Regmi, {Pramod Raj} and Bikash Devkota and Sharma, {Guna Nidhi} and Kolitha Wickramage and {Van Teijlingen}, Edwin and Padam Simkhada",
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Dhungana, RR, Aryal, N, Adhikary, P, Kc, RK, Regmi, PR, Devkota, B, Sharma, GN, Wickramage, K, Van Teijlingen, E & Simkhada, P 2019, 'Psychological morbidity in Nepali cross-border migrants in India: a community based cross-sectional study', BMC Public Health, vol. 19, no. 1, 1534. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7881-z

Psychological morbidity in Nepali cross-border migrants in India : a community based cross-sectional study. / Dhungana, Raja Ram; Aryal, Nirmal; Adhikary, Pratik; Kc, Radheshyam Krishna; Regmi, Pramod Raj; Devkota, Bikash; Sharma, Guna Nidhi; Wickramage, Kolitha; Van Teijlingen, Edwin; Simkhada, Padam.

In: BMC Public Health, Vol. 19, No. 1, 1534, 15.11.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Psychological morbidity in Nepali cross-border migrants in India

T2 - a community based cross-sectional study

AU - Dhungana, Raja Ram

AU - Aryal, Nirmal

AU - Adhikary, Pratik

AU - Kc, Radheshyam Krishna

AU - Regmi, Pramod Raj

AU - Devkota, Bikash

AU - Sharma, Guna Nidhi

AU - Wickramage, Kolitha

AU - Van Teijlingen, Edwin

AU - Simkhada, Padam

PY - 2019/11/15

Y1 - 2019/11/15

N2 - Background: Since Nepali cross-border migrants can freely enter, work and stay in India, they are largely undocumented. The majority is involved in semi-skilled or unskilled jobs with limited labour rights and social security, a fact which predisposes them to psychological distress. We aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with psychological morbidity among Nepali migrants upon their return from India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in six districts of Nepal between September 2017 and February 2018. A total of 751 participants who had worked at least six months in India and returned to Nepal were interviewed from 24 randomly selected clusters. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 was used to measure the psychological morbidity. Data were analysed using Poisson regression analysis. Results: The majority was younger than 35 years (64.1%), male (96.7%), married (81.8%), had at least a primary education (66.6%), and belonged to Dalit, Janajati and religious minorities (53.7%). The prevalence of psychological morbidity was 13.5% (CI: 11.2-16.1%). Participants aged 45 years and above (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 2.74), from the Terai (aPR = 3.29), a religious minority (aPR = 3.64), who received no sick leave (aPR = 2.4), with existing health problems (aPR = 2.0) and having difficulty in accessing health care (aPR = 1.88) were more likely than others to exhibit a psychological morbidity. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that psychological morbidity was prevalent in the study participants and varied significantly with individual characteristics, work conditions and health. Multifaceted approaches including psychological counselling for returnees and protection of labour and health rights in the workplace are recommended to help reduce psychological morbidity.

AB - Background: Since Nepali cross-border migrants can freely enter, work and stay in India, they are largely undocumented. The majority is involved in semi-skilled or unskilled jobs with limited labour rights and social security, a fact which predisposes them to psychological distress. We aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with psychological morbidity among Nepali migrants upon their return from India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in six districts of Nepal between September 2017 and February 2018. A total of 751 participants who had worked at least six months in India and returned to Nepal were interviewed from 24 randomly selected clusters. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 was used to measure the psychological morbidity. Data were analysed using Poisson regression analysis. Results: The majority was younger than 35 years (64.1%), male (96.7%), married (81.8%), had at least a primary education (66.6%), and belonged to Dalit, Janajati and religious minorities (53.7%). The prevalence of psychological morbidity was 13.5% (CI: 11.2-16.1%). Participants aged 45 years and above (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 2.74), from the Terai (aPR = 3.29), a religious minority (aPR = 3.64), who received no sick leave (aPR = 2.4), with existing health problems (aPR = 2.0) and having difficulty in accessing health care (aPR = 1.88) were more likely than others to exhibit a psychological morbidity. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that psychological morbidity was prevalent in the study participants and varied significantly with individual characteristics, work conditions and health. Multifaceted approaches including psychological counselling for returnees and protection of labour and health rights in the workplace are recommended to help reduce psychological morbidity.

KW - India

KW - Migrant workers

KW - Nepal

KW - Prevalence

KW - Psychological morbidity

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U2 - 10.1186/s12889-019-7881-z

DO - 10.1186/s12889-019-7881-z

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AN - SCOPUS:85075068020

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JO - BMC Public Health

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