Radicalization or Reaction: Understanding Engagement in Violent Extremism in Northern Ireland

Neil Ferguson, James McAuley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Over the last decade various theoretical models of radicalization or pathways into engagement in violent extremism have been developed. However, there is a dearth of primary data based on direct contact with violent extremists to test these models. In order to address this weakness, we analyzed accounts of engagement in violent extremism produced by former Northern Irish loyalist and republican paramilitaries to explore their understanding of how and why they engaged in this seemingly politically motivated violence. A thematic analysis incorporating aspects of interpretative phenomenological analysis was employed to gain an understanding of these accounts. While the analysis of the interview transcripts produced findings that share similarities with many of the theoretical models, they challenge the importance of ideological radicalization in fueling initial engagement in violent extremism. Instead, the results demonstrate the importance of collective identity, reaction to events, perceived threats, community grievance, and peer and family influences in fueling initial engagement with the armed groups. Insulation and small‐group pressures within the organizations then amplify identity, threat perceptions, and biases, which increase feelings of efficacy and engagement in violence. Finally, the findings discuss the role of imprisonment in ideologically radicalizing the participants, which in turn allows the paramilitaries to both sustain and rationalize their violent extremism.
LanguageEnglish
Number of pages16
JournalPolitical Psychology
Early online date15 Sep 2019
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 15 Sep 2019

Fingerprint

Northern Ireland
radicalization
radicalism
Violence
Theoretical Models
Emotions
Organizations
Interviews
threat
violence
Pressure
collective identity
imprisonment
small group
contact
Extremism
Radicalization
event
trend
interview

Cite this

@article{06da66a850fd4fdcb5f005812bf2a7a2,
title = "Radicalization or Reaction: Understanding Engagement in Violent Extremism in Northern Ireland",
abstract = "Over the last decade various theoretical models of radicalization or pathways into engagement in violent extremism have been developed. However, there is a dearth of primary data based on direct contact with violent extremists to test these models. In order to address this weakness, we analyzed accounts of engagement in violent extremism produced by former Northern Irish loyalist and republican paramilitaries to explore their understanding of how and why they engaged in this seemingly politically motivated violence. A thematic analysis incorporating aspects of interpretative phenomenological analysis was employed to gain an understanding of these accounts. While the analysis of the interview transcripts produced findings that share similarities with many of the theoretical models, they challenge the importance of ideological radicalization in fueling initial engagement in violent extremism. Instead, the results demonstrate the importance of collective identity, reaction to events, perceived threats, community grievance, and peer and family influences in fueling initial engagement with the armed groups. Insulation and small‐group pressures within the organizations then amplify identity, threat perceptions, and biases, which increase feelings of efficacy and engagement in violence. Finally, the findings discuss the role of imprisonment in ideologically radicalizing the participants, which in turn allows the paramilitaries to both sustain and rationalize their violent extremism.",
keywords = "radicalization, terrorism, Northern Ireland, violent extremism, political violence",
author = "Neil Ferguson and James McAuley",
year = "2019",
month = "9",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1111/pops.12618",
language = "English",
journal = "Political Psychology",
issn = "0162-895X",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",

}

Radicalization or Reaction : Understanding Engagement in Violent Extremism in Northern Ireland. / Ferguson, Neil; McAuley, James.

In: Political Psychology, 15.09.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Radicalization or Reaction

T2 - Political Psychology

AU - Ferguson, Neil

AU - McAuley, James

PY - 2019/9/15

Y1 - 2019/9/15

N2 - Over the last decade various theoretical models of radicalization or pathways into engagement in violent extremism have been developed. However, there is a dearth of primary data based on direct contact with violent extremists to test these models. In order to address this weakness, we analyzed accounts of engagement in violent extremism produced by former Northern Irish loyalist and republican paramilitaries to explore their understanding of how and why they engaged in this seemingly politically motivated violence. A thematic analysis incorporating aspects of interpretative phenomenological analysis was employed to gain an understanding of these accounts. While the analysis of the interview transcripts produced findings that share similarities with many of the theoretical models, they challenge the importance of ideological radicalization in fueling initial engagement in violent extremism. Instead, the results demonstrate the importance of collective identity, reaction to events, perceived threats, community grievance, and peer and family influences in fueling initial engagement with the armed groups. Insulation and small‐group pressures within the organizations then amplify identity, threat perceptions, and biases, which increase feelings of efficacy and engagement in violence. Finally, the findings discuss the role of imprisonment in ideologically radicalizing the participants, which in turn allows the paramilitaries to both sustain and rationalize their violent extremism.

AB - Over the last decade various theoretical models of radicalization or pathways into engagement in violent extremism have been developed. However, there is a dearth of primary data based on direct contact with violent extremists to test these models. In order to address this weakness, we analyzed accounts of engagement in violent extremism produced by former Northern Irish loyalist and republican paramilitaries to explore their understanding of how and why they engaged in this seemingly politically motivated violence. A thematic analysis incorporating aspects of interpretative phenomenological analysis was employed to gain an understanding of these accounts. While the analysis of the interview transcripts produced findings that share similarities with many of the theoretical models, they challenge the importance of ideological radicalization in fueling initial engagement in violent extremism. Instead, the results demonstrate the importance of collective identity, reaction to events, perceived threats, community grievance, and peer and family influences in fueling initial engagement with the armed groups. Insulation and small‐group pressures within the organizations then amplify identity, threat perceptions, and biases, which increase feelings of efficacy and engagement in violence. Finally, the findings discuss the role of imprisonment in ideologically radicalizing the participants, which in turn allows the paramilitaries to both sustain and rationalize their violent extremism.

KW - radicalization

KW - terrorism

KW - Northern Ireland

KW - violent extremism

KW - political violence

U2 - 10.1111/pops.12618

DO - 10.1111/pops.12618

M3 - Article

JO - Political Psychology

JF - Political Psychology

SN - 0162-895X

ER -