RASA: Reliability-Aware Scheduling Approach for FPGA-Based Resilient Embedded Systems in Extreme Environments

Sangeet Saha, Xiaojun Zhai, Shoaib Ehsan, Shakaiba Majeed, Klaus McDonald-Maier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) offer the flexibility of general-purpose processors along with the performance efficiency of dedicated hardware that essentially renders it as a platform of choice for modern-day robotic systems for achieving real-time performance. Such robotic systems when deployed in harsh environments often get plagued by faults due to extreme conditions. Consequently, the real-time applications running on FPGA become susceptible to errors which call for a reliability-aware task scheduling approach, the focus of this article. We attempt to address this challenge using a hybrid offline-online approach. Given a set of periodic real-time tasks that require to be executed, the offline component generates a feasible preemptive schedule with specific preemption points. At runtime, these preemption events are utilized for fault detection. Upon detecting any faulty execution at such distinct points, the reliability-aware scheduling approach, RASA, orchestrates the recovery mechanism to remediate the scenario without jeopardizing the predefined schedule. Effectiveness of the proposed strategy has been verified through simulation-based experiments and we observed that the RASA is able to achieve 72%; of task acceptance rate even under 70%; of system workloads with high fault occurrence rates.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9430894
Pages (from-to)3885-3899
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems
Issue number6
Early online date14 May 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2022
Externally publishedYes


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