Reactive spark plasma sintering of Ti3SnC2, Zr3SnC2 and Hf3SnC2 using Fe, Co or Ni additives

Thomas Lapauw, Bensu Tunca, Thierry Cabioc'h, Jozef Vleugels, Konstantina Lambrinou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


This work studied the effect of adding 10 at% Fe, Co or Ni to M-Sn-C mixtures with M = Ti, Zr or Hf on MAX phases synthesis by reactive spark plasma sintering. Adding Fe, Co or Ni assisted the formation of 312 MAX phases, i.e., Ti3SnC2, Zr3SnC2 and Hf3SnC2, while their 211 counterparts Ti2SnC, Zr2SnC and Hf2SnC formed in the undoped M-Sn-C mixtures. The lattice parameters of the newly synthesized Zr3SnC2 and Hf3SnC2 MAX phases were determined by X-ray diffraction. Binary MC carbides were present in all ceramics, whereas the formation of intermetallics was largely determined by the selected additive. The effect of adding Fe, Co or Ni on the MAX phase crystal structure and the microstructure of the produced ceramics was investigated in greater detail for the case of M = Zr. A mechanism is herein proposed for the formation of M3SnC2 MAX phases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4539-4545
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the European Ceramic Society
Issue number15
Early online date24 Jun 2017
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2017
Externally publishedYes


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