Oilfield-produced water is the primary by-product generated during oil and gas extraction operations. Oilfield-produced water is often severely toxic and poses substantial health, safety, and environmental issues; adequate treatment technologies can bring these streams to a quality level. Photocatalysis is a photochemical catalytic reaction that is a highly promising tool for environmental remediation due to its efficiency in mineralizing persistent and potentially toxic contaminants. However, there is limited understanding of its application to treat oilfield-produced water with a complex and highly variable water composition. This review article discusses the mechanisms and current state of heterogeneous photocatalytic systems for oilfield-produced water treatment, highlighting impediments to knowledge transfer, including the feasibility of practical applications and the identification of essential research requirements. Additionally, the effects of significant variables such as catalyst quantity, pH, organic compound concentration, light intensity, and wavelength are discussed in detail. Some solutions are proposed for scientists and engineers interested in advancing the development of industrial-scale photocatalytic water treatment technologies.