Reflexology and progressive muscle relaxation training for people with multiple sclerosis: A crossover trial

Peter A. Mackereth, Katie Booth, Valerie F. Hillier, Ann Louise Caress

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: To compare the effects of reflexology and progressive muscle relaxation training for people with multiple sclerosis, provided by nurse therapists, on psychological and physical outcomes. Methods: A crossover design was chosen with a 4-week break between treatment phases. The Short Form 36 and General Health Questionnaire 28 were completed by patients (n = 50) pre and post each of the 6-week treatment phases. Salivary cortisol levels, State Anxiety Inventory, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate data were collected pre and post the weekly sessions. Results: All of the chosen measures except for three SF-36 scales recorded significant changes, however, despite the 4-week break (washout period), most outcome measures did not return to their pre-treatment baseline levels. This meant that the analysis of the data was complicated by significant effects involving ordering of treatment occurring for eight of the variables (one from SF-36, two from the GHQ, SAI, Salivary Cortisol, Systolic BP and HR). However, there was a difference in the State Anxiety Inventory values between the treatments of the order of 1.092 units (95%CI 0.211-1.976) (p = 0.016, Wilks λ = 0.885, df = 1, 48) in favour of reflexology. Changes in salivary cortisol comparing levels pre 1st to post 6th session favoured reflexology (95%CI 0.098-2.644) (p = 0.037, Wilks λ = 0.912, df = 1, 48). A significant difference was found in the way the treatments affected change in systolic blood pressure following sessions; this favoured progressive muscle relaxation training (p = 0.002, Wilks λ = 0.812, df = 1, 48). Conclusion: Positive effects of both treatments following sessions and over the 6 weeks of treatment are reported, with limited evidence of difference between the two treatments, complicated by ordering effects.

LanguageEnglish
Pages14-21
Number of pages8
JournalComplementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Volume15
Issue number1
Early online date1 Oct 2008
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2009
Externally publishedYes

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Autogenic Training
Massage
Cross-Over Studies
Multiple Sclerosis
Blood Pressure
Hydrocortisone
Therapeutics
Anxiety
Equipment and Supplies
Heart Rate
Nurses
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Psychology

Cite this

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abstract = "Purpose: To compare the effects of reflexology and progressive muscle relaxation training for people with multiple sclerosis, provided by nurse therapists, on psychological and physical outcomes. Methods: A crossover design was chosen with a 4-week break between treatment phases. The Short Form 36 and General Health Questionnaire 28 were completed by patients (n = 50) pre and post each of the 6-week treatment phases. Salivary cortisol levels, State Anxiety Inventory, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate data were collected pre and post the weekly sessions. Results: All of the chosen measures except for three SF-36 scales recorded significant changes, however, despite the 4-week break (washout period), most outcome measures did not return to their pre-treatment baseline levels. This meant that the analysis of the data was complicated by significant effects involving ordering of treatment occurring for eight of the variables (one from SF-36, two from the GHQ, SAI, Salivary Cortisol, Systolic BP and HR). However, there was a difference in the State Anxiety Inventory values between the treatments of the order of 1.092 units (95{\%}CI 0.211-1.976) (p = 0.016, Wilks λ = 0.885, df = 1, 48) in favour of reflexology. Changes in salivary cortisol comparing levels pre 1st to post 6th session favoured reflexology (95{\%}CI 0.098-2.644) (p = 0.037, Wilks λ = 0.912, df = 1, 48). A significant difference was found in the way the treatments affected change in systolic blood pressure following sessions; this favoured progressive muscle relaxation training (p = 0.002, Wilks λ = 0.812, df = 1, 48). Conclusion: Positive effects of both treatments following sessions and over the 6 weeks of treatment are reported, with limited evidence of difference between the two treatments, complicated by ordering effects.",
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Reflexology and progressive muscle relaxation training for people with multiple sclerosis : A crossover trial. / Mackereth, Peter A.; Booth, Katie; Hillier, Valerie F.; Caress, Ann Louise.

In: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, Vol. 15, No. 1, 01.02.2009, p. 14-21.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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