Analysis of carrier transport in cascaded GaAs/AlGaAs, p-Si/SiGe and GaN/AlGaN terahertz structures is performed using self-consistent rate equations with kinetic energy-balance simulations. The electron transport in n-type structures is simulated using standard envelope function and nonparabolic effective mass approximations with all relevant electron-electron and electron-optical phonon scattering. In the case of GaAs-based structures the model is extended to include ionized impurity and interface roughness scattering as well. The hole subband structure in the p-type device is calculated using the 6 × 6 k ṡ p model, and then used to find carrier relaxation rates due to the alloy disorder, acoustic and optical phonon scattering, as well as hole-hole scattering. The simulation accounts for the in-plane k-space anisotropy of both the hole subband structure and the scattering rates. Results are presented for the original GaAs/AlGaAs THz quantum cascade laser and prototypes of GaN/AlGaN and Si/SiGe THz quantum cascade structures.