Resolving the ancestry of Austronesian-speaking populations

Pedro Soares, Jean A. Trejaut, Teresa Rito, Bruno Cavadas, Catherine Hill, Ken Khong Eng, Maru Mormina, Andreia Brandão, Ross M. Fraser, Tse-yi Wang, Jun-hun Loo, Christopher Snell, Tsang-ming Ko, António Amorim, Maria Pala, Vincent Macaulay, David Bulbeck, James F. Wilson, Leonor Gusmão, Luísa Pereira & 3 others Stephen Oppenheimer, Marie Lin, Martin B. Richards

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

There are two very different interpretations of the prehistory of Island Southeast Asia (ISEA), with genetic evidence invoked in support of both. The “out-of-Taiwan” model proposes a major Late Holocene expansion of Neolithic Austronesian speakers from Taiwan. An alternative, proposing that Late Glacial/postglacial sea-level rises triggered largely autochthonous dispersals, accounts for some otherwise enigmatic genetic patterns, but fails to explain the Austronesian language dispersal. Combining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y-chromosome and genome-wide data, we performed the most comprehensive analysis of the region to date, obtaining highly consistent results across all three systems and allowing us to reconcile the models. We infer a primarily common ancestry for Taiwan/ISEA populations established before the Neolithic, but also detected clear signals of two minor Late Holocene migrations, probably representing Neolithic input from both Mainland Southeast Asia and South China, via Taiwan. This latter may therefore have mediated the Austronesian language dispersal, implying small-scale migration and language shift rather than large-scale expansion.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)309-326
JournalHuman Genetics
Volume135
Issue number3
Early online date18 Jan 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2016

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Taiwan
Southeastern Asia
Language
Islands
Population
Y Chromosome
Mitochondrial DNA
Oceans and Seas
China
Genome

Cite this

Soares, P., Trejaut, J. A., Rito, T., Cavadas, B., Hill, C., Eng, K. K., ... Richards, M. B. (2016). Resolving the ancestry of Austronesian-speaking populations. Human Genetics, 135(3), 309-326. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-015-1620-z
Soares, Pedro ; Trejaut, Jean A. ; Rito, Teresa ; Cavadas, Bruno ; Hill, Catherine ; Eng, Ken Khong ; Mormina, Maru ; Brandão, Andreia ; Fraser, Ross M. ; Wang, Tse-yi ; Loo, Jun-hun ; Snell, Christopher ; Ko, Tsang-ming ; Amorim, António ; Pala, Maria ; Macaulay, Vincent ; Bulbeck, David ; Wilson, James F. ; Gusmão, Leonor ; Pereira, Luísa ; Oppenheimer, Stephen ; Lin, Marie ; Richards, Martin B. / Resolving the ancestry of Austronesian-speaking populations. In: Human Genetics. 2016 ; Vol. 135, No. 3. pp. 309-326.
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abstract = "There are two very different interpretations of the prehistory of Island Southeast Asia (ISEA), with genetic evidence invoked in support of both. The “out-of-Taiwan” model proposes a major Late Holocene expansion of Neolithic Austronesian speakers from Taiwan. An alternative, proposing that Late Glacial/postglacial sea-level rises triggered largely autochthonous dispersals, accounts for some otherwise enigmatic genetic patterns, but fails to explain the Austronesian language dispersal. Combining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y-chromosome and genome-wide data, we performed the most comprehensive analysis of the region to date, obtaining highly consistent results across all three systems and allowing us to reconcile the models. We infer a primarily common ancestry for Taiwan/ISEA populations established before the Neolithic, but also detected clear signals of two minor Late Holocene migrations, probably representing Neolithic input from both Mainland Southeast Asia and South China, via Taiwan. This latter may therefore have mediated the Austronesian language dispersal, implying small-scale migration and language shift rather than large-scale expansion.",
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Soares, P, Trejaut, JA, Rito, T, Cavadas, B, Hill, C, Eng, KK, Mormina, M, Brandão, A, Fraser, RM, Wang, T, Loo, J, Snell, C, Ko, T, Amorim, A, Pala, M, Macaulay, V, Bulbeck, D, Wilson, JF, Gusmão, L, Pereira, L, Oppenheimer, S, Lin, M & Richards, MB 2016, 'Resolving the ancestry of Austronesian-speaking populations', Human Genetics, vol. 135, no. 3, pp. 309-326. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-015-1620-z

Resolving the ancestry of Austronesian-speaking populations. / Soares, Pedro ; Trejaut, Jean A.; Rito, Teresa; Cavadas, Bruno; Hill, Catherine; Eng, Ken Khong; Mormina, Maru; Brandão, Andreia; Fraser, Ross M.; Wang, Tse-yi; Loo, Jun-hun; Snell, Christopher; Ko, Tsang-ming; Amorim, António; Pala, Maria; Macaulay, Vincent; Bulbeck, David; Wilson, James F.; Gusmão, Leonor; Pereira, Luísa; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Lin, Marie; Richards, Martin B.

In: Human Genetics, Vol. 135, No. 3, 03.2016, p. 309-326.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Soares, Pedro

AU - Trejaut, Jean A.

AU - Rito, Teresa

AU - Cavadas, Bruno

AU - Hill, Catherine

AU - Eng, Ken Khong

AU - Mormina, Maru

AU - Brandão, Andreia

AU - Fraser, Ross M.

AU - Wang, Tse-yi

AU - Loo, Jun-hun

AU - Snell, Christopher

AU - Ko, Tsang-ming

AU - Amorim, António

AU - Pala, Maria

AU - Macaulay, Vincent

AU - Bulbeck, David

AU - Wilson, James F.

AU - Gusmão, Leonor

AU - Pereira, Luísa

AU - Oppenheimer, Stephen

AU - Lin, Marie

AU - Richards, Martin B.

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N2 - There are two very different interpretations of the prehistory of Island Southeast Asia (ISEA), with genetic evidence invoked in support of both. The “out-of-Taiwan” model proposes a major Late Holocene expansion of Neolithic Austronesian speakers from Taiwan. An alternative, proposing that Late Glacial/postglacial sea-level rises triggered largely autochthonous dispersals, accounts for some otherwise enigmatic genetic patterns, but fails to explain the Austronesian language dispersal. Combining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y-chromosome and genome-wide data, we performed the most comprehensive analysis of the region to date, obtaining highly consistent results across all three systems and allowing us to reconcile the models. We infer a primarily common ancestry for Taiwan/ISEA populations established before the Neolithic, but also detected clear signals of two minor Late Holocene migrations, probably representing Neolithic input from both Mainland Southeast Asia and South China, via Taiwan. This latter may therefore have mediated the Austronesian language dispersal, implying small-scale migration and language shift rather than large-scale expansion.

AB - There are two very different interpretations of the prehistory of Island Southeast Asia (ISEA), with genetic evidence invoked in support of both. The “out-of-Taiwan” model proposes a major Late Holocene expansion of Neolithic Austronesian speakers from Taiwan. An alternative, proposing that Late Glacial/postglacial sea-level rises triggered largely autochthonous dispersals, accounts for some otherwise enigmatic genetic patterns, but fails to explain the Austronesian language dispersal. Combining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y-chromosome and genome-wide data, we performed the most comprehensive analysis of the region to date, obtaining highly consistent results across all three systems and allowing us to reconcile the models. We infer a primarily common ancestry for Taiwan/ISEA populations established before the Neolithic, but also detected clear signals of two minor Late Holocene migrations, probably representing Neolithic input from both Mainland Southeast Asia and South China, via Taiwan. This latter may therefore have mediated the Austronesian language dispersal, implying small-scale migration and language shift rather than large-scale expansion.

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DO - 10.1007/s00439-015-1620-z

M3 - Article

VL - 135

SP - 309

EP - 326

JO - Human Genetics

JF - Human Genetics

SN - 0340-6717

IS - 3

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Soares P, Trejaut JA, Rito T, Cavadas B, Hill C, Eng KK et al. Resolving the ancestry of Austronesian-speaking populations. Human Genetics. 2016 Mar;135(3):309-326. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-015-1620-z