Retinal vessel tortuosity measures and their applications

Angelos A. Kalitzeos, Gregory Y.H. Lip, Rebekka Heitmar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

60 Citations (Scopus)


Structural retinal vascular characteristics, such as vessel calibers, tortuosity and bifurcation angles are increasingly quantified in an objective manner, slowly replacing subjective qualitative disease classification schemes. This paper provides an overview of the current methodologies and calculations used to compute retinal vessel tortuosity. We set out the different parameter calculations and provide an insight into the clinical applications, while critically reviewing its pitfalls and shortcomings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)40-46
Number of pages7
JournalExperimental Eye Research
Early online date9 Nov 2012
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013
Externally publishedYes


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