Reversible Loss of Bernal Stacking during the Deformation of Few-Layer Graphene in Nanocomposites

Lei Gong, Robert J. Young, Ian A. Kinloch, Sarah J. Haigh, Jamie H. Warner, Jonathan A. Hinks, Ziwei Xu, Li Li, Feng Ding, Ibtsam Riaz, Rashid Jalil, Kostya S. Novoselov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

50 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The deformation of nanocomposites containing graphene flakes with different numbers of layers has been investigated with the use of Raman spectroscopy. It has been found that there is a shift of the 2D band to lower wavenumber and that the rate of band shift per unit strain tends to decrease as the number of graphene layers increases. It has been demonstrated that band broadening takes place during tensile deformation for mono- and bilayer graphene but that band narrowing occurs when the number of graphene layers is more than two. It is also found that the characteristic asymmetric shape of the 2D Raman band for the graphene with three or more layers changes to a symmetrical shape above about 0.4% strain and that it reverts to an asymmetric shape on unloading. This change in Raman band shape and width has been interpreted as being due to a reversible loss of Bernal stacking in the few-layer graphene during deformation. It has been shown that the elastic strain energy released from the unloading of the inner graphene layers in the few-layer material (∼0.2 meV/atom) is similar to the accepted value of the stacking fault energies of graphite and few layer graphene. It is further shown that this loss of Bernal stacking can be accommodated by the formation of arrays of partial dislocations and stacking faults on the basal plane. The effect of the reversible loss of Bernal stacking upon the electronic structure of few-layer graphene and the possibility of using it to modify the electronic structure of few-layer graphene are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7287-7294
Number of pages8
JournalACS Nano
Volume7
Issue number8
Early online date30 Jul 2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 Aug 2013

Fingerprint

Graphite
Graphene
Nanocomposites
nanocomposites
graphene
unloading
Stacking faults
Unloading
Electronic structure
electronic structure
tensile deformation
stacking fault energy
shift
flakes
Strain energy
Dislocations (crystals)
crystal defects
Raman spectroscopy
Monolayers
graphite

Cite this

Gong, L., Young, R. J., Kinloch, I. A., Haigh, S. J., Warner, J. H., Hinks, J. A., ... Novoselov, K. S. (2013). Reversible Loss of Bernal Stacking during the Deformation of Few-Layer Graphene in Nanocomposites. ACS Nano, 7(8), 7287-7294. https://doi.org/10.1021/nn402830f
Gong, Lei ; Young, Robert J. ; Kinloch, Ian A. ; Haigh, Sarah J. ; Warner, Jamie H. ; Hinks, Jonathan A. ; Xu, Ziwei ; Li, Li ; Ding, Feng ; Riaz, Ibtsam ; Jalil, Rashid ; Novoselov, Kostya S. / Reversible Loss of Bernal Stacking during the Deformation of Few-Layer Graphene in Nanocomposites. In: ACS Nano. 2013 ; Vol. 7, No. 8. pp. 7287-7294.
@article{e38597f47c35489a93d40f575f6614de,
title = "Reversible Loss of Bernal Stacking during the Deformation of Few-Layer Graphene in Nanocomposites",
abstract = "The deformation of nanocomposites containing graphene flakes with different numbers of layers has been investigated with the use of Raman spectroscopy. It has been found that there is a shift of the 2D band to lower wavenumber and that the rate of band shift per unit strain tends to decrease as the number of graphene layers increases. It has been demonstrated that band broadening takes place during tensile deformation for mono- and bilayer graphene but that band narrowing occurs when the number of graphene layers is more than two. It is also found that the characteristic asymmetric shape of the 2D Raman band for the graphene with three or more layers changes to a symmetrical shape above about 0.4{\%} strain and that it reverts to an asymmetric shape on unloading. This change in Raman band shape and width has been interpreted as being due to a reversible loss of Bernal stacking in the few-layer graphene during deformation. It has been shown that the elastic strain energy released from the unloading of the inner graphene layers in the few-layer material (∼0.2 meV/atom) is similar to the accepted value of the stacking fault energies of graphite and few layer graphene. It is further shown that this loss of Bernal stacking can be accommodated by the formation of arrays of partial dislocations and stacking faults on the basal plane. The effect of the reversible loss of Bernal stacking upon the electronic structure of few-layer graphene and the possibility of using it to modify the electronic structure of few-layer graphene are discussed.",
keywords = "graphene, Bernal stacking, nanocomposites, Raman spectroscopy, deformation",
author = "Lei Gong and Young, {Robert J.} and Kinloch, {Ian A.} and Haigh, {Sarah J.} and Warner, {Jamie H.} and Hinks, {Jonathan A.} and Ziwei Xu and Li Li and Feng Ding and Ibtsam Riaz and Rashid Jalil and Novoselov, {Kostya S.}",
year = "2013",
month = "8",
day = "27",
doi = "10.1021/nn402830f",
language = "English",
volume = "7",
pages = "7287--7294",
journal = "ACS Nano",
issn = "1936-0851",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "8",

}

Gong, L, Young, RJ, Kinloch, IA, Haigh, SJ, Warner, JH, Hinks, JA, Xu, Z, Li, L, Ding, F, Riaz, I, Jalil, R & Novoselov, KS 2013, 'Reversible Loss of Bernal Stacking during the Deformation of Few-Layer Graphene in Nanocomposites', ACS Nano, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 7287-7294. https://doi.org/10.1021/nn402830f

Reversible Loss of Bernal Stacking during the Deformation of Few-Layer Graphene in Nanocomposites. / Gong, Lei; Young, Robert J.; Kinloch, Ian A.; Haigh, Sarah J.; Warner, Jamie H.; Hinks, Jonathan A.; Xu, Ziwei; Li, Li; Ding, Feng; Riaz, Ibtsam; Jalil, Rashid; Novoselov, Kostya S.

In: ACS Nano, Vol. 7, No. 8, 27.08.2013, p. 7287-7294.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Reversible Loss of Bernal Stacking during the Deformation of Few-Layer Graphene in Nanocomposites

AU - Gong, Lei

AU - Young, Robert J.

AU - Kinloch, Ian A.

AU - Haigh, Sarah J.

AU - Warner, Jamie H.

AU - Hinks, Jonathan A.

AU - Xu, Ziwei

AU - Li, Li

AU - Ding, Feng

AU - Riaz, Ibtsam

AU - Jalil, Rashid

AU - Novoselov, Kostya S.

PY - 2013/8/27

Y1 - 2013/8/27

N2 - The deformation of nanocomposites containing graphene flakes with different numbers of layers has been investigated with the use of Raman spectroscopy. It has been found that there is a shift of the 2D band to lower wavenumber and that the rate of band shift per unit strain tends to decrease as the number of graphene layers increases. It has been demonstrated that band broadening takes place during tensile deformation for mono- and bilayer graphene but that band narrowing occurs when the number of graphene layers is more than two. It is also found that the characteristic asymmetric shape of the 2D Raman band for the graphene with three or more layers changes to a symmetrical shape above about 0.4% strain and that it reverts to an asymmetric shape on unloading. This change in Raman band shape and width has been interpreted as being due to a reversible loss of Bernal stacking in the few-layer graphene during deformation. It has been shown that the elastic strain energy released from the unloading of the inner graphene layers in the few-layer material (∼0.2 meV/atom) is similar to the accepted value of the stacking fault energies of graphite and few layer graphene. It is further shown that this loss of Bernal stacking can be accommodated by the formation of arrays of partial dislocations and stacking faults on the basal plane. The effect of the reversible loss of Bernal stacking upon the electronic structure of few-layer graphene and the possibility of using it to modify the electronic structure of few-layer graphene are discussed.

AB - The deformation of nanocomposites containing graphene flakes with different numbers of layers has been investigated with the use of Raman spectroscopy. It has been found that there is a shift of the 2D band to lower wavenumber and that the rate of band shift per unit strain tends to decrease as the number of graphene layers increases. It has been demonstrated that band broadening takes place during tensile deformation for mono- and bilayer graphene but that band narrowing occurs when the number of graphene layers is more than two. It is also found that the characteristic asymmetric shape of the 2D Raman band for the graphene with three or more layers changes to a symmetrical shape above about 0.4% strain and that it reverts to an asymmetric shape on unloading. This change in Raman band shape and width has been interpreted as being due to a reversible loss of Bernal stacking in the few-layer graphene during deformation. It has been shown that the elastic strain energy released from the unloading of the inner graphene layers in the few-layer material (∼0.2 meV/atom) is similar to the accepted value of the stacking fault energies of graphite and few layer graphene. It is further shown that this loss of Bernal stacking can be accommodated by the formation of arrays of partial dislocations and stacking faults on the basal plane. The effect of the reversible loss of Bernal stacking upon the electronic structure of few-layer graphene and the possibility of using it to modify the electronic structure of few-layer graphene are discussed.

KW - graphene

KW - Bernal stacking

KW - nanocomposites

KW - Raman spectroscopy

KW - deformation

U2 - 10.1021/nn402830f

DO - 10.1021/nn402830f

M3 - Article

VL - 7

SP - 7287

EP - 7294

JO - ACS Nano

JF - ACS Nano

SN - 1936-0851

IS - 8

ER -