Produced water is the wastewater formed when water is brought from subsurface reservoirs during oil or gas extraction. Currently, produced water is mainly treated using conventional trains that contain adsorbates, membrane filters, phase separators and cyclones. This paper reviewed the detailed characteristics of oilfield-produced water and the assessment of multiple technologies at primary, secondary, and tertiary treatments stages. The effectiveness of the treatment technology from the production of waste, energy requirements, usage of chemicals and the treatment effect of contaminants has been discussed. Then a qualitative assessment was presented in terms of energy requirements, robustness, flexibility, waste generation, modularity, and mobility, which has become critical to the development and application prospects of any technology.