This paper presents the development of H∞ control strategy for the active steering of railway vehicles with independently rotating wheelsets. The primary objective of the active steering is to stabilize the wheelset and to provide a guidance control. Some fundamental problems for active steering are addressed in the study. The developed controller is able to maintain stability and good performance when parameter variations occur, in particular at the wheel-rail interface. The control is also robust against structured uncertainties that are not included in the model such as actuator dynamics. Furthermore the control design is formulated to use only practical sensors of inertial and speed measurements, as some basic measurements required for active steering such as wheel-rail lateral displacement cannot be easily and economically measured in practice.