SARS-CoV-2 infection pattern, transmission and treatment: Multicenter study in low to middle-income districts hospitals in Punjab, Pakistan

Sairah Hafeez Kamran, Zia Ul Mustafa, Alina Zeeshan Rao, Syed Shahzad Hasan, Farheen Zahoor, Mohammad Umair Sarwar, Shehroze Khan, Sannan Butt, Muhammad Rameez, Muhammad Asif Abbas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Pakistan has reported a substantial number of COVID-19 cases since 2020. A multicenter observational study was conducted to identify the pattern of SARS-CoV-2 infection, transmission, and treatment in patients admitted to seven low to middle-income district hospitals in the Province of Punjab, Pakistan from March to June 2020. A total of 102 patients were recruited. 57 patients tested positive and 45 developed moderate-severe COVID-19 disease. About 67% of the patients in March-April and 93% in May-June have contracted the disease from the local transmission. The mean number of symptoms in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients was significantly higher than suspected patients (6.46 vs 5.04, p=0.003). The number of deaths was low (n=8) with 86% recovery rate. Mild COVID patients received acetaminophen (n=102), azithromycin (n=8), and hydroxychloroquine (n=4) in addition to standard medical care. The treatment provided to moderate-severe cases included acetaminophen (45/45), azithromycin (45/45), Ivermectin (14/45) and corticosteroids (13/45). The mean number of antimicrobials was significantly higher in moderate-severe patients than mild cases (1.80 vs 1.12, p=0.001). Low number of deaths with a high recovery rate was reported. Diabetes was the most common comorbid condition followed by hypertension. Many antimicrobials were prescribed in both mild and moderate-severe cases that require careful review.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6087
Pages (from-to)1135-1142
Number of pages8
JournalPakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Volume34
Issue numberS3
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2021

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