Security at the Physical Layer over GG Fading and mEGG Turbulence Induced RF-UOWC Mixed System

A. S.M. Badrudduza, Md Ibrahim, S. M. Riazul Islam, Md Shakhawat Hossen, Milton Kumar Kundu, Imran Shafique Ansari, Heejung Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


With the rapid evolution of communication technologies, high-speed optical wireless applications under the water surface as a replacement or complementary to the conventional radio frequency (RF) and acoustic technologies are attracting significant attention from the researchers. Since underwater turbulence (UWT) is an inevitable impediment for a long distance underwater optical wireless communication (UOWC) link, mixed RF-UOWC is being considered as a more feasible solution by the research community. This article deals with the secrecy performance of a variable gain relay-based mixed dual-hop RF-UOWC framework under the intercepting attempt of a potential eavesdropper. The RF link undergoes Generalized Gamma (GG) fading distribution, whereas the UOWC link is subjected to mixture Exponential Generalized Gamma (mEGG) distribution. The eavesdropper is capable of wiretapping via a RF link that also experiences the GG fading. The secrecy analysis incorporates the derivations of closed-form expressions for strictly positive secrecy capacity, average secrecy capacity, and exact as well as lower bound of secrecy outage probability in terms of univariate and bivariate Meijer's G and Fox's H functions. Based on these expressions, impacts of heterodyne and intensity modulation/direct detection techniques along with weak, moderate, and severe UWT conditions due to air bubbles, temperature, and salinity gradients are quantified. To the best of authors' knowledge, the proposed model is the first of its kind that addresses the secrecy analysis of a temperature gradient RF-UOWC system along with air bubbles, as opposed to the existing models that considered thermally uniform scenarios only. Finally, the derived expressions are verified via Monte-Carlo simulations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9330523
Pages (from-to)18123-18136
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Access
Early online date21 Jan 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2021
Externally publishedYes


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