A tripodal cyclotriveratrylene-based ligand with chelating 2,2‘-bipyridine arms self-assembles with either Zn(NO3)2 or Co(NO3)2 to give 3-D trigonal bipyramidal [M3L2] cage assemblies. These cages triply interlock forming catenane species that have been characterized by mass spectrometry and, in the case of the Zn(II) complex, by X-ray crystallography.
Westcott, A., Fisher, J., Harding, L. P., Rizkallah, P., & Hardie, M. J. (2008). Self-assembly of a 3-D triply interlocked chiral catenane. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 130(10), 2950-2951. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja8002149