Simulation-based instruction for pharmacy practice skill development: A review of the literature

Syed Shahzad Hasan, David Weng Kwai Chong, Pei Se Wong, Suresh Kumar, Syed Imran Ahmed, Piyush Mittal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Background: Simulation is attractive for its potential for applying a control over learning environment, content complexity, teacher time, costs and risk. Simulation-based instruction (SBI) is poised to expand in pharmacy practice and education. This systematic review synthesises published, SBI in first-degree pharmacy programmes, especially those pertaining to psychomotor or cognitive skill development.
Materials and Methods: MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and some education journals were searched for relevant
articles published between January 2000 and December 2015.
Results: Of 108 articles identified, 12 were included, which were covering four
major simulation-based interventions. These simulation-based interventions were diverse, and they covered a range of competencies and outcome measures. Nine studies included medication, and five studies included physical examination/procedure-related competencies as outcome measures. The evidence from nine studies suggested that skills could be improved through interventions involving human patient simulation.
Conclusion: Despite improvements in students’ ability to perform, there is a lack of evidence on how this translates to real settings
and to patient satisfaction.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)43-50
Number of pages8
JournalArchives of Pharmacy Practice
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 17 Apr 2017
Externally publishedYes


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