Substitution of PFAS Chemistry in Outdoor Apparel and the Impact on Repellency Performance

Philippa J. Hill, Mark Taylor, Parikshit Goswami, Richard S. Blackburn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Intensifying legislation and increased research on the toxicological and persistent nature of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have recently influenced the direction of liquid repellent chemistry use; environmental, social, and sustainability responsibilities are at the crux. Without PFAS chemistry, it is challenging to meet current textile industry liquid repellency requirements, which is a highly desirable property, particularly in outdoor apparel where the technology helps to provide the wearer with essential protection from adverse environmental conditions. Herein, complexities between required functionality, legislation and sustainability within outdoor apparel are discussed, and fundamental technical performance of commercially available long-chain (C8) PFASs, shorter-chain (C6) PFASs, and non-fluorinated repellent chemistries finishes are evaluated comparatively. Non-fluorinated finishes provided no oil repellency, and were clearly inferior in this property to PFAS-finished fabrics that demonstrated good oil-resistance. However, water repellency ratings were similar across the range of all finished fabrics tested, all demonstrating a high level of resistance to wetting, and several non-fluorinated repellent fabrics provide similar water repellency to long-chain (C8) PFAS or shorter-chain (C6) PFAS finished fabrics. The primary repellency function required in outdoor apparel is water repellency, and we would propose that the use of PFAS chemistry for such garments is over-engineering, providing oil repellency that is in excess of user requirements. Accordingly, significant environmental and toxicological benefits could be achieved by switching outdoor apparel to non-fluorinated finishes without a significant reduction in garment water-repellency performance. These conclusions are being supported by further research into the effect of laundering, abrasion and ageing of these fabrics.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)500-507
Number of pages8
JournalChemosphere
Volume181
Early online date28 Apr 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2017
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

substitution
Substitution reactions
Water
Sustainable development
oil
Oils
legislation
Oil resistance
sustainability
Laundering
water
liquid
Liquids
textile industry
Textile industry
abrasion
Abrasion
wetting
Wetting
Aging of materials

Cite this

Hill, Philippa J. ; Taylor, Mark ; Goswami, Parikshit ; Blackburn, Richard S. / Substitution of PFAS Chemistry in Outdoor Apparel and the Impact on Repellency Performance. In: Chemosphere. 2017 ; Vol. 181. pp. 500-507.
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abstract = "Intensifying legislation and increased research on the toxicological and persistent nature of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have recently influenced the direction of liquid repellent chemistry use; environmental, social, and sustainability responsibilities are at the crux. Without PFAS chemistry, it is challenging to meet current textile industry liquid repellency requirements, which is a highly desirable property, particularly in outdoor apparel where the technology helps to provide the wearer with essential protection from adverse environmental conditions. Herein, complexities between required functionality, legislation and sustainability within outdoor apparel are discussed, and fundamental technical performance of commercially available long-chain (C8) PFASs, shorter-chain (C6) PFASs, and non-fluorinated repellent chemistries finishes are evaluated comparatively. Non-fluorinated finishes provided no oil repellency, and were clearly inferior in this property to PFAS-finished fabrics that demonstrated good oil-resistance. However, water repellency ratings were similar across the range of all finished fabrics tested, all demonstrating a high level of resistance to wetting, and several non-fluorinated repellent fabrics provide similar water repellency to long-chain (C8) PFAS or shorter-chain (C6) PFAS finished fabrics. The primary repellency function required in outdoor apparel is water repellency, and we would propose that the use of PFAS chemistry for such garments is over-engineering, providing oil repellency that is in excess of user requirements. Accordingly, significant environmental and toxicological benefits could be achieved by switching outdoor apparel to non-fluorinated finishes without a significant reduction in garment water-repellency performance. These conclusions are being supported by further research into the effect of laundering, abrasion and ageing of these fabrics.",
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Substitution of PFAS Chemistry in Outdoor Apparel and the Impact on Repellency Performance. / Hill, Philippa J.; Taylor, Mark; Goswami, Parikshit; Blackburn, Richard S.

In: Chemosphere, Vol. 181, 08.2017, p. 500-507.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Substitution of PFAS Chemistry in Outdoor Apparel and the Impact on Repellency Performance

AU - Hill, Philippa J.

AU - Taylor, Mark

AU - Goswami, Parikshit

AU - Blackburn, Richard S.

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AB - Intensifying legislation and increased research on the toxicological and persistent nature of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have recently influenced the direction of liquid repellent chemistry use; environmental, social, and sustainability responsibilities are at the crux. Without PFAS chemistry, it is challenging to meet current textile industry liquid repellency requirements, which is a highly desirable property, particularly in outdoor apparel where the technology helps to provide the wearer with essential protection from adverse environmental conditions. Herein, complexities between required functionality, legislation and sustainability within outdoor apparel are discussed, and fundamental technical performance of commercially available long-chain (C8) PFASs, shorter-chain (C6) PFASs, and non-fluorinated repellent chemistries finishes are evaluated comparatively. Non-fluorinated finishes provided no oil repellency, and were clearly inferior in this property to PFAS-finished fabrics that demonstrated good oil-resistance. However, water repellency ratings were similar across the range of all finished fabrics tested, all demonstrating a high level of resistance to wetting, and several non-fluorinated repellent fabrics provide similar water repellency to long-chain (C8) PFAS or shorter-chain (C6) PFAS finished fabrics. The primary repellency function required in outdoor apparel is water repellency, and we would propose that the use of PFAS chemistry for such garments is over-engineering, providing oil repellency that is in excess of user requirements. Accordingly, significant environmental and toxicological benefits could be achieved by switching outdoor apparel to non-fluorinated finishes without a significant reduction in garment water-repellency performance. These conclusions are being supported by further research into the effect of laundering, abrasion and ageing of these fabrics.

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KW - Outdoor apparel

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U2 - 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.04.122

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JO - Chemosphere

JF - Chemosphere

SN - 0045-6535

ER -