The availability, pricing and affordability of three essential asthma medicines in 52 low- and middle-income countries

Zaheer Ud Din Babar, Charon Lessing, Cécile Mace, Karen Bissell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Almost 300 million people suffer from asthma, yet many in low- and middle-income countries have difficulty accessing essential asthma medicines. Availability, price and affordability of medicines are likely to affect access. Very few studies have included asthma medicines, particularly inhaled corticosteroids, in these countries. Reflections about international reference prices (IRPs) are generally absent from pricing studies, yet some IRPs may be masking the extent of access problems. Objectives: Our objective was to determine the availability, pricing and affordability of beclometasone, budesonide and salbutamol, the three asthma medicines on the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) in selected low- and middle-income countries and to reflect on the appropriateness of using IRPs. Methods: A cross-sectional pricing survey was conducted in 52 countries. Data were collected on country demographics including national currency, $US exchange rate and daily wage of the lowest-paid unskilled government worker. Pricing and availability data were collected for salbutamol, beclometasone and budesonide in two private retail pharmacies, the national procurement centre and a main public hospital. Results: Availability was particularly poor for corticosteroids, and worse in national procurement centres and main hospitals. The surveyed strength of beclometasone was only on the EML of ten countries. Considerable variability was found in pricing and affordability across countries. Procurement systems appeared largely inefficient when Asthma Drug Facility prices were applied as references. Some countries appear to be subsidising asthma medicines, making them free or less expensive for patients, while other countries are applying very high margins, which can significantly increase the price for patients unless a reimbursement system exists. Conclusions: Findings raise important policy concerns. Availability of inhaled corticosteroids is poor; many EMLs are not updated; IRPs can be misleading; health systems and patients are paying more than necessary for asthma medicines, which are unaffordable for many patients in many countries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1063-1082
Number of pages20
Issue number11
Early online date15 Oct 2013
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2013
Externally publishedYes


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