FGFs have traditionally been associated with cell proliferation, morphogenesis, and development; yet, a subfamily of FGFs (FGF19, -21, and -23) functions as hormones to regulate glucose, lipid, phosphate, and vitamin D metabolism with impact on energy balance and aging. In mammals, Klotho and beta-Klotho are type 1 transmembrane proteins that function as obligatory co-factors for endocrine FGFs to bind to their cognate FGF receptors (FGFRs). Mutations in Klotho/beta-Klotho or fgf19, -21, or -23 are associated with a number of human diseases, including autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets, premature aging disorders, and diabetes. The Caenorhabditis elegans genome contains two paralogues of Klotho/beta-Klotho, klo-1, and klo-2. klo-1 is expressed in the C. elegans excretory canal, which is structurally and functionally paralogous to the vertebrate kidney. KLO-1 associates with EGL-15/FGFR, suggesting a role for KLO-1 in the fluid homeostasis phenotype described previously for egl-15/fgfr mutants. Altered levels of EGL-15/FGFR signaling lead to defects in excretory canal development and function in C. elegans. These results suggest an evolutionarily conserved function for the FGFR-Klotho complex in the development of excretory organs such as the mammalian kidney and the worm excretory canal. These results also suggest an evolutionarily conserved function for the FGFR-Klotho axis in metabolic regulation.