The development and use of T2GGM

A gas modelling code for the postclosure safety assessment of OPG's proposed L&ILW deep geologic repository, Canada

Paul Suckling, Nicola Calder, Paul Humphreys, Fraser King, Helen Leung

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

As part of the postclosure safety assessment of Ontario Power Generation's (OPG's) proposed Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for Low and Intermediate Level Waste (L&ILW) at the Bruce site, Ontario, a Gas Generation Model (GGM) has been developed and used to model the detailed generation of gas within the DGR due to corrosion and microbial degradation of the organics and metals present. The GGM is based on a kinetic description of the various microbial and corrosion processes that lead to the generation and consumption of various gases. It takes into account the mass-balance equations for each of the species included in the model, including three forms of organic waste (cellulose, ion-exchange resins, and plastics and rubbers), four metallic waste forms and container materials (carbon and galvanised steel, passivated carbon steel, stainless steel and nickel-based alloys, and zirconium alloys), six gases (CO2, N2, O2, H2, H2S, and CH 4), five terminal electron acceptors (O2, NO 3 -, Fe(III), SO4 2-, and CO 2), five forms of biomass (aerobes, denitrifiers, iron reducers, sulphate reducers, and methanogens), four types of corrosion product (FeOOH, FeCO3, Fe3O4, and FeS), and water. The code includes the possibility of the limitation of both microbial and corrosion reactions by the availability of water. The GGM has been coupled with TOUGH2 to produce T2GGM; a code that models the generation of gas in the repository and its subsequent transport through the geosphere. T2GGM estimates the peak repository pressure, long time repository saturation and the total flux of gases from the geosphere. The present paper describes the development of T2GGM and the numerical modelling work undertaken to calculate the generation and build-up of gas in the repository, the two-phase exchange of gas and groundwater between the repository and the surrounding rock, and between the rock and the surface environment. The results have been used to inform the safety assessment modelling.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationASME 2009 12th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management, ICEM2009
Pages29-38
Number of pages10
Volume1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Event12th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management - Liverpool, United Kingdom
Duration: 11 Oct 200915 Oct 2009
Conference number: 12

Conference

Conference12th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management
Abbreviated titleICEM / ASME 2009
CountryUnited Kingdom
CityLiverpool
Period11/10/0915/10/09

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power generation
repository
Power generation
safety
Gases
gas
modeling
corrosion
Corrosion
steel
Rocks
code
Methanogens
Zirconium alloys
Ion exchange resins
carbon
rubber
rock
Carbon steel
Containers

Cite this

Suckling, P., Calder, N., Humphreys, P., King, F., & Leung, H. (2009). The development and use of T2GGM: A gas modelling code for the postclosure safety assessment of OPG's proposed L&ILW deep geologic repository, Canada. In ASME 2009 12th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management, ICEM2009 (Vol. 1, pp. 29-38) https://doi.org/10.1115/ICEM2009-16291
Suckling, Paul ; Calder, Nicola ; Humphreys, Paul ; King, Fraser ; Leung, Helen. / The development and use of T2GGM : A gas modelling code for the postclosure safety assessment of OPG's proposed L&ILW deep geologic repository, Canada. ASME 2009 12th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management, ICEM2009. Vol. 1 2009. pp. 29-38
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abstract = "As part of the postclosure safety assessment of Ontario Power Generation's (OPG's) proposed Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for Low and Intermediate Level Waste (L&ILW) at the Bruce site, Ontario, a Gas Generation Model (GGM) has been developed and used to model the detailed generation of gas within the DGR due to corrosion and microbial degradation of the organics and metals present. The GGM is based on a kinetic description of the various microbial and corrosion processes that lead to the generation and consumption of various gases. It takes into account the mass-balance equations for each of the species included in the model, including three forms of organic waste (cellulose, ion-exchange resins, and plastics and rubbers), four metallic waste forms and container materials (carbon and galvanised steel, passivated carbon steel, stainless steel and nickel-based alloys, and zirconium alloys), six gases (CO2, N2, O2, H2, H2S, and CH 4), five terminal electron acceptors (O2, NO 3 -, Fe(III), SO4 2-, and CO 2), five forms of biomass (aerobes, denitrifiers, iron reducers, sulphate reducers, and methanogens), four types of corrosion product (FeOOH, FeCO3, Fe3O4, and FeS), and water. The code includes the possibility of the limitation of both microbial and corrosion reactions by the availability of water. The GGM has been coupled with TOUGH2 to produce T2GGM; a code that models the generation of gas in the repository and its subsequent transport through the geosphere. T2GGM estimates the peak repository pressure, long time repository saturation and the total flux of gases from the geosphere. The present paper describes the development of T2GGM and the numerical modelling work undertaken to calculate the generation and build-up of gas in the repository, the two-phase exchange of gas and groundwater between the repository and the surrounding rock, and between the rock and the surface environment. The results have been used to inform the safety assessment modelling.",
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Suckling, P, Calder, N, Humphreys, P, King, F & Leung, H 2009, The development and use of T2GGM: A gas modelling code for the postclosure safety assessment of OPG's proposed L&ILW deep geologic repository, Canada. in ASME 2009 12th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management, ICEM2009. vol. 1, pp. 29-38, 12th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management, Liverpool, United Kingdom, 11/10/09. https://doi.org/10.1115/ICEM2009-16291

The development and use of T2GGM : A gas modelling code for the postclosure safety assessment of OPG's proposed L&ILW deep geologic repository, Canada. / Suckling, Paul; Calder, Nicola; Humphreys, Paul; King, Fraser; Leung, Helen.

ASME 2009 12th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management, ICEM2009. Vol. 1 2009. p. 29-38.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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T2 - A gas modelling code for the postclosure safety assessment of OPG's proposed L&ILW deep geologic repository, Canada

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AU - King, Fraser

AU - Leung, Helen

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N2 - As part of the postclosure safety assessment of Ontario Power Generation's (OPG's) proposed Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for Low and Intermediate Level Waste (L&ILW) at the Bruce site, Ontario, a Gas Generation Model (GGM) has been developed and used to model the detailed generation of gas within the DGR due to corrosion and microbial degradation of the organics and metals present. The GGM is based on a kinetic description of the various microbial and corrosion processes that lead to the generation and consumption of various gases. It takes into account the mass-balance equations for each of the species included in the model, including three forms of organic waste (cellulose, ion-exchange resins, and plastics and rubbers), four metallic waste forms and container materials (carbon and galvanised steel, passivated carbon steel, stainless steel and nickel-based alloys, and zirconium alloys), six gases (CO2, N2, O2, H2, H2S, and CH 4), five terminal electron acceptors (O2, NO 3 -, Fe(III), SO4 2-, and CO 2), five forms of biomass (aerobes, denitrifiers, iron reducers, sulphate reducers, and methanogens), four types of corrosion product (FeOOH, FeCO3, Fe3O4, and FeS), and water. The code includes the possibility of the limitation of both microbial and corrosion reactions by the availability of water. The GGM has been coupled with TOUGH2 to produce T2GGM; a code that models the generation of gas in the repository and its subsequent transport through the geosphere. T2GGM estimates the peak repository pressure, long time repository saturation and the total flux of gases from the geosphere. The present paper describes the development of T2GGM and the numerical modelling work undertaken to calculate the generation and build-up of gas in the repository, the two-phase exchange of gas and groundwater between the repository and the surrounding rock, and between the rock and the surface environment. The results have been used to inform the safety assessment modelling.

AB - As part of the postclosure safety assessment of Ontario Power Generation's (OPG's) proposed Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for Low and Intermediate Level Waste (L&ILW) at the Bruce site, Ontario, a Gas Generation Model (GGM) has been developed and used to model the detailed generation of gas within the DGR due to corrosion and microbial degradation of the organics and metals present. The GGM is based on a kinetic description of the various microbial and corrosion processes that lead to the generation and consumption of various gases. It takes into account the mass-balance equations for each of the species included in the model, including three forms of organic waste (cellulose, ion-exchange resins, and plastics and rubbers), four metallic waste forms and container materials (carbon and galvanised steel, passivated carbon steel, stainless steel and nickel-based alloys, and zirconium alloys), six gases (CO2, N2, O2, H2, H2S, and CH 4), five terminal electron acceptors (O2, NO 3 -, Fe(III), SO4 2-, and CO 2), five forms of biomass (aerobes, denitrifiers, iron reducers, sulphate reducers, and methanogens), four types of corrosion product (FeOOH, FeCO3, Fe3O4, and FeS), and water. The code includes the possibility of the limitation of both microbial and corrosion reactions by the availability of water. The GGM has been coupled with TOUGH2 to produce T2GGM; a code that models the generation of gas in the repository and its subsequent transport through the geosphere. T2GGM estimates the peak repository pressure, long time repository saturation and the total flux of gases from the geosphere. The present paper describes the development of T2GGM and the numerical modelling work undertaken to calculate the generation and build-up of gas in the repository, the two-phase exchange of gas and groundwater between the repository and the surrounding rock, and between the rock and the surface environment. The results have been used to inform the safety assessment modelling.

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KW - ILW

KW - LLW

KW - Postclosure safety assessment

KW - Repository

KW - TOUGH2

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U2 - 10.1115/ICEM2009-16291

DO - 10.1115/ICEM2009-16291

M3 - Conference contribution

SN - 9780791844076

VL - 1

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EP - 38

BT - ASME 2009 12th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management, ICEM2009

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Suckling P, Calder N, Humphreys P, King F, Leung H. The development and use of T2GGM: A gas modelling code for the postclosure safety assessment of OPG's proposed L&ILW deep geologic repository, Canada. In ASME 2009 12th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management, ICEM2009. Vol. 1. 2009. p. 29-38 https://doi.org/10.1115/ICEM2009-16291