### Abstract

An investigation is presented of the use of finite element models in the time domain to represent a load moving on a railway track on a flexible ground. A systematic study is carried out to compare different sizes and shapes of finite element mesh, different boundary conditions intended for suppressing reflections from the truncated model boundaries, and different models of soil damping. The purpose is to develop guidance to assist in selecting appropriate finite element models for moving load problems. To prevent reflections from the boundaries of the finite domain two approaches are compared. A 40 m radius hemispherical finite element mesh has been used first with infinite elements around the perimeter. This approach gives good results for a point harmonic load at the centre of the domain but some problems are highlighted when it is used for moving load calculations. An alternative approach has therefore been investigated based on a cuboid mesh. The base was fixed to prevent rigid-body motions of the model and, rather than use infinite elements at the sides, these were also fixed. It is shown that, provided that a suitable damping model is used, the spurious reflections from the sides of the model can be suppressed if the model is wide enough. On the other hand, if infinite elements are used, the calculations are found to be considerably more costly with little added benefit. Different models of soil damping are also compared. It is shown that a mass-proportional damping model gives a decay with distance that is independent of frequency, making it particularly suitable for this application. The length of model required to achieve steady state has been investigated. For a homogeneous half-space it is found that the required length increases considerably in the vicinity of the critical speed, up to 130 m in the present example, whereas for the layered ground a more modest length is sufficient for all speeds.

Original language | English |
---|---|

Pages (from-to) | 12-27 |

Number of pages | 16 |

Journal | Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering |

Volume | 89 |

Early online date | 6 Aug 2016 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - Oct 2016 |

Externally published | Yes |

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*Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering*,

*89*, 12-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2016.07.004

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*Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering*, vol. 89, pp. 12-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2016.07.004

**The effect of boundary conditions, model size and damping models in the finite element modelling of a moving load on a track/ground system.** / Shih, J. Y.; Thompson, D. J.; Zervos, A.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

TY - JOUR

T1 - The effect of boundary conditions, model size and damping models in the finite element modelling of a moving load on a track/ground system

AU - Shih, J. Y.

AU - Thompson, D. J.

AU - Zervos, A.

N1 - No full text in Eprints. HN 20/10/2017

PY - 2016/10

Y1 - 2016/10

N2 - An investigation is presented of the use of finite element models in the time domain to represent a load moving on a railway track on a flexible ground. A systematic study is carried out to compare different sizes and shapes of finite element mesh, different boundary conditions intended for suppressing reflections from the truncated model boundaries, and different models of soil damping. The purpose is to develop guidance to assist in selecting appropriate finite element models for moving load problems. To prevent reflections from the boundaries of the finite domain two approaches are compared. A 40 m radius hemispherical finite element mesh has been used first with infinite elements around the perimeter. This approach gives good results for a point harmonic load at the centre of the domain but some problems are highlighted when it is used for moving load calculations. An alternative approach has therefore been investigated based on a cuboid mesh. The base was fixed to prevent rigid-body motions of the model and, rather than use infinite elements at the sides, these were also fixed. It is shown that, provided that a suitable damping model is used, the spurious reflections from the sides of the model can be suppressed if the model is wide enough. On the other hand, if infinite elements are used, the calculations are found to be considerably more costly with little added benefit. Different models of soil damping are also compared. It is shown that a mass-proportional damping model gives a decay with distance that is independent of frequency, making it particularly suitable for this application. The length of model required to achieve steady state has been investigated. For a homogeneous half-space it is found that the required length increases considerably in the vicinity of the critical speed, up to 130 m in the present example, whereas for the layered ground a more modest length is sufficient for all speeds.

AB - An investigation is presented of the use of finite element models in the time domain to represent a load moving on a railway track on a flexible ground. A systematic study is carried out to compare different sizes and shapes of finite element mesh, different boundary conditions intended for suppressing reflections from the truncated model boundaries, and different models of soil damping. The purpose is to develop guidance to assist in selecting appropriate finite element models for moving load problems. To prevent reflections from the boundaries of the finite domain two approaches are compared. A 40 m radius hemispherical finite element mesh has been used first with infinite elements around the perimeter. This approach gives good results for a point harmonic load at the centre of the domain but some problems are highlighted when it is used for moving load calculations. An alternative approach has therefore been investigated based on a cuboid mesh. The base was fixed to prevent rigid-body motions of the model and, rather than use infinite elements at the sides, these were also fixed. It is shown that, provided that a suitable damping model is used, the spurious reflections from the sides of the model can be suppressed if the model is wide enough. On the other hand, if infinite elements are used, the calculations are found to be considerably more costly with little added benefit. Different models of soil damping are also compared. It is shown that a mass-proportional damping model gives a decay with distance that is independent of frequency, making it particularly suitable for this application. The length of model required to achieve steady state has been investigated. For a homogeneous half-space it is found that the required length increases considerably in the vicinity of the critical speed, up to 130 m in the present example, whereas for the layered ground a more modest length is sufficient for all speeds.

KW - Critical speed

KW - Finite Element Method (FEM)

KW - Half-space

KW - Infinite element

KW - Layered ground

KW - Moving load

KW - Time domain

KW - Viscous damping

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84980491439&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.soildyn.2016.07.004

DO - 10.1016/j.soildyn.2016.07.004

M3 - Article

VL - 89

SP - 12

EP - 27

JO - Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering

JF - Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering

SN - 0267-7261

ER -