The Effect of Clearance upon Friction of Large Diameter Hip Resurfacing Prostheses using Blood and Combinations of Bovine Serum with Aqueous Solutions of Cmc and Hyaluronic Acid as Lubricants

Mansour Youseffi, Saeed Afshinjavid, Farideh Javid

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Abstract

In real life, immediately after joint replacement, the artificial joint is actually bathed in blood instead of synovial fluid. Blood contains large molecules and cells of size ~ 5 to 20 micron suspended in plasma and considered to be a non-Newtonian (pseudoplastic) fluid with viscosity ~ 0.01 Pas at shear rates of 3000 s-1. The effect of these properties on friction is not fully understood and, so far, hardly any studies have been carried out regarding friction of metal-on-metal bearings with various clearances in the presence of lubricants such as blood or a fluid containing macromolecules such as Hyaluronic Acid (HA) which is a major component of synovial fluid, increasing its viscosity and lubricating properties. In this work, therefore, the frictional behaviour of a group of Smith and Nephew Birmingham Hip Resurfacing devices with a nominal diameter of 50mm and diametral clearances in the range ~ 80 to 300µm, in the presence of blood (clotted and whole blood), a combination of Bovine Serum (BS) with Hyaluronic Acid (HA) and Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) adjusted to a range of viscosities (~0.001-0.2 Pas), and bovine serum with CMC adjusted to a similar range of viscosities have been investigated.

The results suggest that reduced clearance bearings have the potential to generate high friction especially in the presence of blood which is indeed the in vivo lubricant in the early weeks after implantation. Friction factors in higher clearance bearings were found to be lower than those of the lower clearance bearings using blood as the lubricant.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1019
Number of pages5
JournalSM Journal of Biomedical Engineering
Volume3
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 24 Jul 2017

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Hip prostheses
Hyaluronic Acid
Bearings (structural)
Lubricants
Blood
Friction
Viscosity
Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium
Fluids
Metals
Macromolecules
Shear deformation
Plasmas
Molecules

Cite this

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title = "The Effect of Clearance upon Friction of Large Diameter Hip Resurfacing Prostheses using Blood and Combinations of Bovine Serum with Aqueous Solutions of Cmc and Hyaluronic Acid as Lubricants",
abstract = "In real life, immediately after joint replacement, the artificial joint is actually bathed in blood instead of synovial fluid. Blood contains large molecules and cells of size ~ 5 to 20 micron suspended in plasma and considered to be a non-Newtonian (pseudoplastic) fluid with viscosity ~ 0.01 Pas at shear rates of 3000 s-1. The effect of these properties on friction is not fully understood and, so far, hardly any studies have been carried out regarding friction of metal-on-metal bearings with various clearances in the presence of lubricants such as blood or a fluid containing macromolecules such as Hyaluronic Acid (HA) which is a major component of synovial fluid, increasing its viscosity and lubricating properties. In this work, therefore, the frictional behaviour of a group of Smith and Nephew Birmingham Hip Resurfacing devices with a nominal diameter of 50mm and diametral clearances in the range ~ 80 to 300µm, in the presence of blood (clotted and whole blood), a combination of Bovine Serum (BS) with Hyaluronic Acid (HA) and Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) adjusted to a range of viscosities (~0.001-0.2 Pas), and bovine serum with CMC adjusted to a similar range of viscosities have been investigated.The results suggest that reduced clearance bearings have the potential to generate high friction especially in the presence of blood which is indeed the in vivo lubricant in the early weeks after implantation. Friction factors in higher clearance bearings were found to be lower than those of the lower clearance bearings using blood as the lubricant.",
keywords = "50mm diameter metal-on-metal BHR hip resurfacing prostheses, Blood, BS+CMC, BS+HA+CMC, Clotted Blood, Diametral clearances, Friction",
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AU - Afshinjavid, Saeed

AU - Javid, Farideh

PY - 2017/7/24

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N2 - In real life, immediately after joint replacement, the artificial joint is actually bathed in blood instead of synovial fluid. Blood contains large molecules and cells of size ~ 5 to 20 micron suspended in plasma and considered to be a non-Newtonian (pseudoplastic) fluid with viscosity ~ 0.01 Pas at shear rates of 3000 s-1. The effect of these properties on friction is not fully understood and, so far, hardly any studies have been carried out regarding friction of metal-on-metal bearings with various clearances in the presence of lubricants such as blood or a fluid containing macromolecules such as Hyaluronic Acid (HA) which is a major component of synovial fluid, increasing its viscosity and lubricating properties. In this work, therefore, the frictional behaviour of a group of Smith and Nephew Birmingham Hip Resurfacing devices with a nominal diameter of 50mm and diametral clearances in the range ~ 80 to 300µm, in the presence of blood (clotted and whole blood), a combination of Bovine Serum (BS) with Hyaluronic Acid (HA) and Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) adjusted to a range of viscosities (~0.001-0.2 Pas), and bovine serum with CMC adjusted to a similar range of viscosities have been investigated.The results suggest that reduced clearance bearings have the potential to generate high friction especially in the presence of blood which is indeed the in vivo lubricant in the early weeks after implantation. Friction factors in higher clearance bearings were found to be lower than those of the lower clearance bearings using blood as the lubricant.

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