The Effect of Direct-to-Reverberant Energy Ratio on Front-Back Confusion in Binaural Reproduction

Hyunkook Lee, Dale Johnson, Slawomir K. Zielinski

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The effect of direct-to-reverberant ratio (DRR) on front-back confusion in binaural reproduction was investigated. Binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs) of loudspeakers at 0° and 180° azimuths from the listening position were captured in an ITU-R BS.1116-3-comp1iant listening room (RT=0.25s) using a KU100 dummy head placed 2m away from each loudspeaker. The DRRs of the original BRIRs were manipulated by varying the levels of the reverberant parts (beyond 2. 5ms after the direct sound) of the signals, producing BRIRs with DRRs ranging from -12 dB to 12 dB with 4 dB intervals for each source position, as well as a pseudo-anechoic HRIR condition. Five subjects participated in the initial listening test. Each front or back stimulus with a different DRR was presented 20 times in a random order and the subject's task was to respond either Front or Back. From psychometric functions derived from the data collected, a consistent pattern was observed from all subjects in that a lower DRR (more reverberant) tended to cause a higher rate of front-to-back confusion, whereas a higher DRR produced a higher rate of back-to-front confusion. The DRR thresholds of discrimination were different between the front and rear located sources, and the region between the two thresholds is proposed as a transition region where an extreme chance of confusion can be avoided for both source positions.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2021 Immersive and 3D Audio
Subtitle of host publicationFrom Architecture to Automotive, I3DA 2021
Number of pages5
ISBN (Electronic)9781665409988
ISBN (Print)9781665409995
Publication statusPublished - 23 Nov 2021
Event2021 Immersive and 3D Audio: From Architecture to Automotive - Bologna, Italy
Duration: 8 Sep 202110 Sep 2021


Conference2021 Immersive and 3D Audio: From Architecture to Automotive
Abbreviated titleI3DA 2021


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