The genomic history of the Iberian Peninsula over the past 8000 years

Iñigo Olalde, Swapan Mallick, Nick Patterson, Nadin Rohland, Vanessa Villalba-Mouco, Marina Soares Da Silva, Katharina Dulias, Ceiridwen Edwards, Francesca Gandini, Maria Pala, Pedro Soares, Manuel Ferrando-Bernal, Nicole Adamski, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Olivia Cheronet, Brendan Culleton, Daniel Fernandes, Ann Marie Lawson, Matthew Mah, Jonas Oppenheimer & 75 others Kristin Stewardson, Zhao Zhang, Juan Manuel Jiménez Arenas, Isidro Jorge Toro Moyano, Domingo C. Salazar-García, Pere Castanyer, Marta Santos, Joaquim Tremoleda, Marina Lozano, Pablo García Borja, Javier Fernández-Eraso, José Antonio Mujika-Alustiza, Cecilio Barroso, Francisco J. Bermúdez, Enrique Viguera Mínguez, Josep Burch, Neus Coromina, David Vivó, Artur Cebrià, Josep Maria Fullola, Oreto García-Puchol, Juan Ignacio Morales, F. Xavier Oms, Tona Majó, Josep Maria Vergès, Antònia Díaz-Carvajal, Imma Ollich-Castanyer, F. Javier López-Cachero, Ana Maria Silva, Carmen Alonso-Fernández, Germán Delibes de Castro, Javier Jiménez Echevarría, Adolfo Moreno-Márquez, Guillermo Pascual Berlanga, Pablo Ramos-García, José Ramos Muñoz, Eduardo Vijande Vila, Gustau Aguilella Arzo, Ángel Esparza Arroyo, Katina T. Lillios, Jennifer Mack, Javier Velasco-Vázquez, Anna Waterman, Luis Benítez de Lugo Enrich, María Benito Sánchez, Bibiana Agustí, Ferran Codina, Gabriel de Prado, Almudena Estalrrich, Álvaro Fernández Flores, Clive Finlayson, Geraldine Finlayson, Stewart Finlayson, Francisco Giles-Guzmán, Antonio Rosas, Virginia Barciela González, Gabriel García Atiénzar, Mauro S. Hernández Pérez, Armando Llanos, Yolanda Carrión Marco, Isabel Collado Beneyto, David López-Serrano, Sarah B McClure, Marta Merino Pérez, Arturo Oliver Foix, Montserrat Sanz Borràs, Ana Catarina Sousa, Julio Manuel Vidal Encinas, Douglas J. Kennett, Martin Richards, Kurt Werner Alt, Wolfgang Haak, Ron Pinhasi, Carles Lalueza-Fox, David Reich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We assembled genome-wide data from 271 ancient Iberians, of whom 176 are from the largely unsampled period after 2000 BCE, thereby providing a high-resolution time transect of the Iberian Peninsula. We document high genetic substructure between northwestern and southeastern hunter-gatherers before the spread of farming. We reveal sporadic contacts between Iberia and North Africa by ~2500 BCE and, by ~2000 BCE, the replacement of 40% of Iberia’s ancestry and nearly 100% of its Y-chromosomes by people with Steppe ancestry. We show that, in the Iron Age, Steppe ancestry had spread not only into Indo-European–speaking regions but also into non-Indo-European–speaking ones, and we reveal that present-day Basques are best described as a typical Iron Age population without the admixture events that later affected the rest of Iberia. Additionally, we document how, beginning at least in the Roman period, the ancestry of the peninsula was transformed by gene flow from North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1230-1234
Number of pages5
JournalScience
Volume363
Issue number6432
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2019

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ancestry
genomics
Iron Age
history
steppe
hunter-gatherer
gene flow
chromosome
transect
genome
replacement
document
North Africa

Cite this

Olalde, I., Mallick, S., Patterson, N., Rohland, N., Villalba-Mouco, V., Soares Da Silva, M., ... Reich, D. (2019). The genomic history of the Iberian Peninsula over the past 8000 years. Science, 363(6432), 1230-1234. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aav4040
Olalde, Iñigo ; Mallick, Swapan ; Patterson, Nick ; Rohland, Nadin ; Villalba-Mouco, Vanessa ; Soares Da Silva, Marina ; Dulias, Katharina ; Edwards, Ceiridwen ; Gandini, Francesca ; Pala, Maria ; Soares, Pedro ; Ferrando-Bernal, Manuel ; Adamski, Nicole ; Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen ; Cheronet, Olivia ; Culleton, Brendan ; Fernandes, Daniel ; Lawson, Ann Marie ; Mah, Matthew ; Oppenheimer, Jonas ; Stewardson, Kristin ; Zhang, Zhao ; Arenas, Juan Manuel Jiménez ; Moyano, Isidro Jorge Toro ; Salazar-García, Domingo C. ; Castanyer, Pere ; Santos, Marta ; Tremoleda, Joaquim ; Lozano, Marina ; Borja, Pablo García ; Fernández-Eraso, Javier ; Mujika-Alustiza, José Antonio ; Barroso, Cecilio ; Bermúdez, Francisco J. ; Mínguez, Enrique Viguera ; Burch, Josep ; Coromina, Neus ; Vivó, David ; Cebrià, Artur ; Fullola, Josep Maria ; García-Puchol, Oreto ; Morales, Juan Ignacio ; Oms, F. Xavier ; Majó, Tona ; Vergès, Josep Maria ; Díaz-Carvajal, Antònia ; Ollich-Castanyer, Imma ; López-Cachero, F. Javier ; Silva, Ana Maria ; Alonso-Fernández, Carmen ; de Castro, Germán Delibes ; Echevarría, Javier Jiménez ; Moreno-Márquez, Adolfo ; Berlanga, Guillermo Pascual ; Ramos-García, Pablo ; Muñoz, José Ramos ; Vila, Eduardo Vijande ; Arzo, Gustau Aguilella ; Arroyo, Ángel Esparza ; Lillios, Katina T. ; Mack, Jennifer ; Velasco-Vázquez, Javier ; Waterman, Anna ; de Lugo Enrich, Luis Benítez ; Sánchez, María Benito ; Agustí, Bibiana ; Codina, Ferran ; de Prado, Gabriel ; Estalrrich, Almudena ; Flores, Álvaro Fernández ; Finlayson, Clive ; Finlayson, Geraldine ; Finlayson, Stewart ; Giles-Guzmán, Francisco ; Rosas, Antonio ; González, Virginia Barciela ; Atiénzar, Gabriel García ; Pérez, Mauro S. Hernández ; Llanos, Armando ; Marco, Yolanda Carrión ; Beneyto, Isabel Collado ; López-Serrano, David ; McClure, Sarah B ; Pérez, Marta Merino ; Foix, Arturo Oliver ; Borràs, Montserrat Sanz ; Sousa, Ana Catarina ; Encinas, Julio Manuel Vidal ; Kennett, Douglas J. ; Richards, Martin ; Alt, Kurt Werner ; Haak, Wolfgang ; Pinhasi, Ron ; Lalueza-Fox, Carles ; Reich, David. / The genomic history of the Iberian Peninsula over the past 8000 years. In: Science. 2019 ; Vol. 363, No. 6432. pp. 1230-1234.
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abstract = "We assembled genome-wide data from 271 ancient Iberians, of whom 176 are from the largely unsampled period after 2000 BCE, thereby providing a high-resolution time transect of the Iberian Peninsula. We document high genetic substructure between northwestern and southeastern hunter-gatherers before the spread of farming. We reveal sporadic contacts between Iberia and North Africa by ~2500 BCE and, by ~2000 BCE, the replacement of 40{\%} of Iberia’s ancestry and nearly 100{\%} of its Y-chromosomes by people with Steppe ancestry. We show that, in the Iron Age, Steppe ancestry had spread not only into Indo-European–speaking regions but also into non-Indo-European–speaking ones, and we reveal that present-day Basques are best described as a typical Iron Age population without the admixture events that later affected the rest of Iberia. Additionally, we document how, beginning at least in the Roman period, the ancestry of the peninsula was transformed by gene flow from North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean.",
author = "I{\~n}igo Olalde and Swapan Mallick and Nick Patterson and Nadin Rohland and Vanessa Villalba-Mouco and {Soares Da Silva}, Marina and Katharina Dulias and Ceiridwen Edwards and Francesca Gandini and Maria Pala and Pedro Soares and Manuel Ferrando-Bernal and Nicole Adamski and Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht and Olivia Cheronet and Brendan Culleton and Daniel Fernandes and Lawson, {Ann Marie} and Matthew Mah and Jonas Oppenheimer and Kristin Stewardson and Zhao Zhang and Arenas, {Juan Manuel Jim{\'e}nez} and Moyano, {Isidro Jorge Toro} and Salazar-Garc{\'i}a, {Domingo C.} and Pere Castanyer and Marta Santos and Joaquim Tremoleda and Marina Lozano and Borja, {Pablo Garc{\'i}a} and Javier Fern{\'a}ndez-Eraso and Mujika-Alustiza, {Jos{\'e} Antonio} and Cecilio Barroso and Berm{\'u}dez, {Francisco J.} and M{\'i}nguez, {Enrique Viguera} and Josep Burch and Neus Coromina and David Viv{\'o} and Artur Cebri{\`a} and Fullola, {Josep Maria} and Oreto Garc{\'i}a-Puchol and Morales, {Juan Ignacio} and Oms, {F. Xavier} and Tona Maj{\'o} and Verg{\`e}s, {Josep Maria} and Ant{\`o}nia D{\'i}az-Carvajal and Imma Ollich-Castanyer and L{\'o}pez-Cachero, {F. Javier} and Silva, {Ana Maria} and Carmen Alonso-Fern{\'a}ndez and {de Castro}, {Germ{\'a}n Delibes} and Echevarr{\'i}a, {Javier Jim{\'e}nez} and Adolfo Moreno-M{\'a}rquez and Berlanga, {Guillermo Pascual} and Pablo Ramos-Garc{\'i}a and Mu{\~n}oz, {Jos{\'e} Ramos} and Vila, {Eduardo Vijande} and Arzo, {Gustau Aguilella} and Arroyo, {{\'A}ngel Esparza} and Lillios, {Katina T.} and Jennifer Mack and Javier Velasco-V{\'a}zquez and Anna Waterman and {de Lugo Enrich}, {Luis Ben{\'i}tez} and S{\'a}nchez, {Mar{\'i}a Benito} and Bibiana Agust{\'i} and Ferran Codina and {de Prado}, Gabriel and Almudena Estalrrich and Flores, {{\'A}lvaro Fern{\'a}ndez} and Clive Finlayson and Geraldine Finlayson and Stewart Finlayson and Francisco Giles-Guzm{\'a}n and Antonio Rosas and Gonz{\'a}lez, {Virginia Barciela} and Ati{\'e}nzar, {Gabriel Garc{\'i}a} and P{\'e}rez, {Mauro S. Hern{\'a}ndez} and Armando Llanos and Marco, {Yolanda Carri{\'o}n} and Beneyto, {Isabel Collado} and David L{\'o}pez-Serrano and McClure, {Sarah B} and P{\'e}rez, {Marta Merino} and Foix, {Arturo Oliver} and Borr{\`a}s, {Montserrat Sanz} and Sousa, {Ana Catarina} and Encinas, {Julio Manuel Vidal} and Kennett, {Douglas J.} and Martin Richards and Alt, {Kurt Werner} and Wolfgang Haak and Ron Pinhasi and Carles Lalueza-Fox and David Reich",
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Olalde, I, Mallick, S, Patterson, N, Rohland, N, Villalba-Mouco, V, Soares Da Silva, M, Dulias, K, Edwards, C, Gandini, F, Pala, M, Soares, P, Ferrando-Bernal, M, Adamski, N, Broomandkhoshbacht, N, Cheronet, O, Culleton, B, Fernandes, D, Lawson, AM, Mah, M, Oppenheimer, J, Stewardson, K, Zhang, Z, Arenas, JMJ, Moyano, IJT, Salazar-García, DC, Castanyer, P, Santos, M, Tremoleda, J, Lozano, M, Borja, PG, Fernández-Eraso, J, Mujika-Alustiza, JA, Barroso, C, Bermúdez, FJ, Mínguez, EV, Burch, J, Coromina, N, Vivó, D, Cebrià, A, Fullola, JM, García-Puchol, O, Morales, JI, Oms, FX, Majó, T, Vergès, JM, Díaz-Carvajal, A, Ollich-Castanyer, I, López-Cachero, FJ, Silva, AM, Alonso-Fernández, C, de Castro, GD, Echevarría, JJ, Moreno-Márquez, A, Berlanga, GP, Ramos-García, P, Muñoz, JR, Vila, EV, Arzo, GA, Arroyo, ÁE, Lillios, KT, Mack, J, Velasco-Vázquez, J, Waterman, A, de Lugo Enrich, LB, Sánchez, MB, Agustí, B, Codina, F, de Prado, G, Estalrrich, A, Flores, ÁF, Finlayson, C, Finlayson, G, Finlayson, S, Giles-Guzmán, F, Rosas, A, González, VB, Atiénzar, GG, Pérez, MSH, Llanos, A, Marco, YC, Beneyto, IC, López-Serrano, D, McClure, SB, Pérez, MM, Foix, AO, Borràs, MS, Sousa, AC, Encinas, JMV, Kennett, DJ, Richards, M, Alt, KW, Haak, W, Pinhasi, R, Lalueza-Fox, C & Reich, D 2019, 'The genomic history of the Iberian Peninsula over the past 8000 years', Science, vol. 363, no. 6432, pp. 1230-1234. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aav4040

The genomic history of the Iberian Peninsula over the past 8000 years. / Olalde, Iñigo; Mallick, Swapan; Patterson, Nick; Rohland, Nadin; Villalba-Mouco, Vanessa; Soares Da Silva, Marina; Dulias, Katharina; Edwards, Ceiridwen; Gandini, Francesca; Pala, Maria; Soares, Pedro ; Ferrando-Bernal, Manuel; Adamski, Nicole ; Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen; Cheronet, Olivia; Culleton, Brendan; Fernandes, Daniel; Lawson, Ann Marie; Mah, Matthew; Oppenheimer, Jonas; Stewardson, Kristin; Zhang, Zhao; Arenas, Juan Manuel Jiménez; Moyano, Isidro Jorge Toro; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Castanyer, Pere; Santos, Marta; Tremoleda, Joaquim; Lozano, Marina; Borja, Pablo García; Fernández-Eraso, Javier; Mujika-Alustiza, José Antonio; Barroso, Cecilio; Bermúdez, Francisco J.; Mínguez, Enrique Viguera; Burch, Josep; Coromina, Neus ; Vivó, David; Cebrià, Artur; Fullola, Josep Maria; García-Puchol, Oreto; Morales, Juan Ignacio; Oms, F. Xavier; Majó, Tona; Vergès, Josep Maria; Díaz-Carvajal, Antònia; Ollich-Castanyer, Imma; López-Cachero, F. Javier; Silva, Ana Maria; Alonso-Fernández, Carmen; de Castro, Germán Delibes; Echevarría, Javier Jiménez; Moreno-Márquez, Adolfo; Berlanga, Guillermo Pascual; Ramos-García, Pablo; Muñoz, José Ramos; Vila, Eduardo Vijande; Arzo, Gustau Aguilella; Arroyo, Ángel Esparza; Lillios, Katina T.; Mack, Jennifer; Velasco-Vázquez, Javier; Waterman, Anna; de Lugo Enrich, Luis Benítez; Sánchez, María Benito; Agustí, Bibiana; Codina, Ferran; de Prado, Gabriel; Estalrrich, Almudena ; Flores, Álvaro Fernández; Finlayson, Clive; Finlayson, Geraldine; Finlayson, Stewart; Giles-Guzmán, Francisco; Rosas, Antonio; González, Virginia Barciela; Atiénzar, Gabriel García; Pérez, Mauro S. Hernández; Llanos, Armando; Marco, Yolanda Carrión; Beneyto, Isabel Collado; López-Serrano, David; McClure, Sarah B; Pérez, Marta Merino; Foix, Arturo Oliver; Borràs, Montserrat Sanz; Sousa, Ana Catarina; Encinas, Julio Manuel Vidal; Kennett, Douglas J.; Richards, Martin; Alt, Kurt Werner; Haak, Wolfgang; Pinhasi, Ron; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Reich, David.

In: Science, Vol. 363, No. 6432, 15.03.2019, p. 1230-1234.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The genomic history of the Iberian Peninsula over the past 8000 years

AU - Olalde, Iñigo

AU - Mallick, Swapan

AU - Patterson, Nick

AU - Rohland, Nadin

AU - Villalba-Mouco, Vanessa

AU - Soares Da Silva, Marina

AU - Dulias, Katharina

AU - Edwards, Ceiridwen

AU - Gandini, Francesca

AU - Pala, Maria

AU - Soares, Pedro

AU - Ferrando-Bernal, Manuel

AU - Adamski, Nicole

AU - Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen

AU - Cheronet, Olivia

AU - Culleton, Brendan

AU - Fernandes, Daniel

AU - Lawson, Ann Marie

AU - Mah, Matthew

AU - Oppenheimer, Jonas

AU - Stewardson, Kristin

AU - Zhang, Zhao

AU - Arenas, Juan Manuel Jiménez

AU - Moyano, Isidro Jorge Toro

AU - Salazar-García, Domingo C.

AU - Castanyer, Pere

AU - Santos, Marta

AU - Tremoleda, Joaquim

AU - Lozano, Marina

AU - Borja, Pablo García

AU - Fernández-Eraso, Javier

AU - Mujika-Alustiza, José Antonio

AU - Barroso, Cecilio

AU - Bermúdez, Francisco J.

AU - Mínguez, Enrique Viguera

AU - Burch, Josep

AU - Coromina, Neus

AU - Vivó, David

AU - Cebrià, Artur

AU - Fullola, Josep Maria

AU - García-Puchol, Oreto

AU - Morales, Juan Ignacio

AU - Oms, F. Xavier

AU - Majó, Tona

AU - Vergès, Josep Maria

AU - Díaz-Carvajal, Antònia

AU - Ollich-Castanyer, Imma

AU - López-Cachero, F. Javier

AU - Silva, Ana Maria

AU - Alonso-Fernández, Carmen

AU - de Castro, Germán Delibes

AU - Echevarría, Javier Jiménez

AU - Moreno-Márquez, Adolfo

AU - Berlanga, Guillermo Pascual

AU - Ramos-García, Pablo

AU - Muñoz, José Ramos

AU - Vila, Eduardo Vijande

AU - Arzo, Gustau Aguilella

AU - Arroyo, Ángel Esparza

AU - Lillios, Katina T.

AU - Mack, Jennifer

AU - Velasco-Vázquez, Javier

AU - Waterman, Anna

AU - de Lugo Enrich, Luis Benítez

AU - Sánchez, María Benito

AU - Agustí, Bibiana

AU - Codina, Ferran

AU - de Prado, Gabriel

AU - Estalrrich, Almudena

AU - Flores, Álvaro Fernández

AU - Finlayson, Clive

AU - Finlayson, Geraldine

AU - Finlayson, Stewart

AU - Giles-Guzmán, Francisco

AU - Rosas, Antonio

AU - González, Virginia Barciela

AU - Atiénzar, Gabriel García

AU - Pérez, Mauro S. Hernández

AU - Llanos, Armando

AU - Marco, Yolanda Carrión

AU - Beneyto, Isabel Collado

AU - López-Serrano, David

AU - McClure, Sarah B

AU - Pérez, Marta Merino

AU - Foix, Arturo Oliver

AU - Borràs, Montserrat Sanz

AU - Sousa, Ana Catarina

AU - Encinas, Julio Manuel Vidal

AU - Kennett, Douglas J.

AU - Richards, Martin

AU - Alt, Kurt Werner

AU - Haak, Wolfgang

AU - Pinhasi, Ron

AU - Lalueza-Fox, Carles

AU - Reich, David

PY - 2019/3/15

Y1 - 2019/3/15

N2 - We assembled genome-wide data from 271 ancient Iberians, of whom 176 are from the largely unsampled period after 2000 BCE, thereby providing a high-resolution time transect of the Iberian Peninsula. We document high genetic substructure between northwestern and southeastern hunter-gatherers before the spread of farming. We reveal sporadic contacts between Iberia and North Africa by ~2500 BCE and, by ~2000 BCE, the replacement of 40% of Iberia’s ancestry and nearly 100% of its Y-chromosomes by people with Steppe ancestry. We show that, in the Iron Age, Steppe ancestry had spread not only into Indo-European–speaking regions but also into non-Indo-European–speaking ones, and we reveal that present-day Basques are best described as a typical Iron Age population without the admixture events that later affected the rest of Iberia. Additionally, we document how, beginning at least in the Roman period, the ancestry of the peninsula was transformed by gene flow from North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean.

AB - We assembled genome-wide data from 271 ancient Iberians, of whom 176 are from the largely unsampled period after 2000 BCE, thereby providing a high-resolution time transect of the Iberian Peninsula. We document high genetic substructure between northwestern and southeastern hunter-gatherers before the spread of farming. We reveal sporadic contacts between Iberia and North Africa by ~2500 BCE and, by ~2000 BCE, the replacement of 40% of Iberia’s ancestry and nearly 100% of its Y-chromosomes by people with Steppe ancestry. We show that, in the Iron Age, Steppe ancestry had spread not only into Indo-European–speaking regions but also into non-Indo-European–speaking ones, and we reveal that present-day Basques are best described as a typical Iron Age population without the admixture events that later affected the rest of Iberia. Additionally, we document how, beginning at least in the Roman period, the ancestry of the peninsula was transformed by gene flow from North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean.

U2 - 10.1126/science.aav4040

DO - 10.1126/science.aav4040

M3 - Article

VL - 363

SP - 1230

EP - 1234

JO - Science

JF - Science

SN - 0036-8075

IS - 6432

ER -

Olalde I, Mallick S, Patterson N, Rohland N, Villalba-Mouco V, Soares Da Silva M et al. The genomic history of the Iberian Peninsula over the past 8000 years. Science. 2019 Mar 15;363(6432):1230-1234. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aav4040