The impacts of the built environment on health outcomes

Ricardo Codinhoto, Patricia Tzortzopoulos, Mike Kagioglou, Ghassan Aouad, Rachel Cooper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual framework that categorises the features and characteristics of the built environment that impact on health outcomes. 

Design/methodology/approach - An extensive literature review was carried out. A total of 1,163 abstracts were assessed, leading to 92 papers being reviewed. 

Findings - There is a considerable amount of evidence linking healthcare environments to patients' health outcomes, despite the lack of clarity in relation to cause-effect relationships. 

Originality/value - The paper proposes a theoretical framework linking different built environment characteristics to health outcomes. This framework provides a structure to group causal effects according to their relation with design features, materials and ambient properties, art and aesthetic aspects and use of the built environment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)138-151
Number of pages14
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 27 Feb 2009
Externally publishedYes


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