The incremental expansion of Born Internationals: A comparison of new and old Born Internationals

Martin Johanson, Oscar Martín Martín

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


Not much is known about the characteristics of "early internationalizers" in their later life and there is scant empirical literature - and an acute need for quantitative studies - about the features of Born Internationals (BIs) after their first years of operation. In this context, we aim to describe the later life of BIs and determine whether some of the critical aspects of internationalization are visible in their post-birth features. This study contributes to the literature on internationalization by providing quantitative evidence on key post-birth characteristics of BIs. Guided by five research hypotheses, it explores changes in the BIs' profile and tests whether or not there are differences between newer BIs and older ones in a sample of SMEs. The results support the basic cumulative dynamics proposed by the incremental school in terms of international business experience, international commitment, and level of internationalization, which implies that these factors can to some extent be viewed as driving forces in the internationalization process of BIs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)476-496
Number of pages21
JournalInternational Business Review
Issue number3
Early online date11 Nov 2014
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2015
Externally publishedYes


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