This study investigates the Mosuo culture identity and transitions in the context of contemporary China. The Mosuo people are a small ethnic group who live in the highland regions close to the border with Tibet. At the center of values and architectural forms of Mosuo dwellings, the Grandmother’s house is explored in this study to see how identity is expressed through spatial organization, from houses, ornamentation, furniture, and furnishings to daily activities, life cycle events, and rituals. In April 2017, data was collected through ethnographical observations and interviews with 23 family members from five Mosuo households on their perceptions of the Grandmother’s house. Drawings were also used as a method to understand and analyze interior and architectural features of the Grandmother’s house. Elements of the Grandmother’s house that are meaningful and preserved include the female and male columns, low doors, hearths, Zambala, Guozhuang stone and Situo, the back room, and wood shingle roof. These elements constitute a “constant” in the construction of a Grandmother’s house and serve to promote the continuity and consistency inherent in traditional Mosuo dwelling, embodying Mosuo culture and values in the built form. The methods and findings presented in this paper aim to provide a comprehensive study/investigation of the Grandmother’s house and its spatial evolution, and to start a debate on the fate of this building.