The Mechanisms of Reactions of β-Lactam Antibiotics

Michael I. Page

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

148 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This chapter explains that penicillin was the first naturally occurring antibiotic to be characterized and used in clinical medicine. It can be seen as the progenitor of the β-lactam family of antibiotics, which are characterized by the possession of the four-membered β -lactam ring. Penicillins were originally detected in fungi but subsequently were found in streptomycetes. The cephalosporins, second member of the β -lactam antibiotic family, were also originally discovered in fungi but later detected in streptomycetes. At present, p-lactam antibiotics can be classified into several groups according to their structure: penicillins (penams), cephalosporins (cephems), cephamycins, oxacephems, penems, clavulanic acid, thienamycin (carbapenems), nocardicins, and monobactams. The chapter highlights that large number of nuclear analogs of the β -lactam antibiotics have been prepared by complete chemical synthesis or by partial synthesis starting from a naturally occurring β -lactam. Of these only the oxacephems and the penems have been investigated clinically.

LanguageEnglish
Pages165-270
Number of pages106
JournalAdvances in Physical Organic Chemistry
Volume23
Issue numberC
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1987

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antibiotics
beta-Lactams
penicillin
streptomycetes
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Penicillins
fungi
Cephalosporins
Fungi
clinical medicine
Cephamycins
Monobactams
Lactams
Clavulanic Acid
Carbapenems
synthesis
Medicine
analogs
acids
rings

Cite this

Page, Michael I. / The Mechanisms of Reactions of β-Lactam Antibiotics. In: Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry. 1987 ; Vol. 23, No. C. pp. 165-270.
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The Mechanisms of Reactions of β-Lactam Antibiotics. / Page, Michael I.

In: Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry, Vol. 23, No. C, 01.1987, p. 165-270.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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