The None in Three Victim Responsiveness Assessment (Ni3: VRA): A new outcome measure for intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention programs

Agata Debowska, Daniel Boduszek, Dominic Willmott, Adele Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)


Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate the None in Three Victim Responsiveness Assessment (Ni3: VRA) examining affective and cognitive responsiveness toward victims of intimate partner violence. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected at two time points in a sample of 359 young people from Barbados and Grenada (56.27 percent female; M age=12.73 years). Findings: Confirmatory factor analysis results indicated that the Ni3: VRA scores are best captured by a two-factor solution, including affective and cognitive dimensions. A test-retest correlation confirmed the reliability of the Ni3: VRA over time. Affective responsiveness formed a significant positive association with caring/cooperative behavior. Originality/value: The Ni3: VRA can be used for the evaluation of preventive strategies aimed at reducing the rates of IPV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97-106
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Children's Services
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jun 2019


Cite this