The Paleo-Indian Entry into South America According to Mitogenomes

Stefania Brandini, Paola Bergamaschi, Marco Fernando Cerna, Francesca Gandini, Francesca Bastaroli, Emilie Bertolini, Cristina Cereda, Luca Ferretti, Alberto Gomez-Carballa, Vincenza Battaglia, Antonio Salas, Ornella Semino, Alessandro Achilli, Anna Olivieri, Antonio Torroni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Recent and compelling archaeological evidence attests to human presence ∼14.5 ka at multiple sites in South America and a very early exploitation of extreme high-altitude Andean environments. Considering that, according to genetic evidence, human entry into North America from Beringia most likely occurred ∼16 ka, these archeological findings would imply an extremely rapid spread along the double continent. To shed light on this issue from a genetic perspective, we first completely sequenced 217 novel modern mitogenomes of Native American ancestry from the northwestern area of South America (Ecuador and Peru); we then evaluated them phylogenetically together with other available mitogenomes (430 samples, both modern and ancient) from the same geographic area and, finally, with all closely related mitogenomes from the entire double continent. We detected a large number (N = 48) of novel subhaplogroups, often branching into further subclades, belonging to two classes: those that arose in South America early after its peopling and those that instead originated in North or Central America and reached South America with the first settlers. Coalescence age estimates for these subhaplogroups provide time boundaries indicating that early Paleo-Indians probably moved from North America to the area corresponding to modern Ecuador and Peru over the short time frame of ∼1.5 ka comprised between 16.0 and 14.6 ka.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)299-311
Number of pages13
JournalMolecular Biology and Evolution
Volume35
Issue number2
Early online date31 Oct 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2018

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South America
North America
Ecuador
Peru
Beringia
Central America
archaeological evidence
North American Indians
American Indians
Medical Genetics
coalescence
ancestry
branching
mitochondrial genome
sampling
continent

Cite this

Brandini, S., Bergamaschi, P., Cerna, M. F., Gandini, F., Bastaroli, F., Bertolini, E., ... Torroni, A. (2018). The Paleo-Indian Entry into South America According to Mitogenomes. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 35(2), 299-311. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msx267
Brandini, Stefania ; Bergamaschi, Paola ; Cerna, Marco Fernando ; Gandini, Francesca ; Bastaroli, Francesca ; Bertolini, Emilie ; Cereda, Cristina ; Ferretti, Luca ; Gomez-Carballa, Alberto ; Battaglia, Vincenza ; Salas, Antonio ; Semino, Ornella ; Achilli, Alessandro ; Olivieri, Anna ; Torroni, Antonio. / The Paleo-Indian Entry into South America According to Mitogenomes. In: Molecular Biology and Evolution. 2018 ; Vol. 35, No. 2. pp. 299-311.
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Brandini, S, Bergamaschi, P, Cerna, MF, Gandini, F, Bastaroli, F, Bertolini, E, Cereda, C, Ferretti, L, Gomez-Carballa, A, Battaglia, V, Salas, A, Semino, O, Achilli, A, Olivieri, A & Torroni, A 2018, 'The Paleo-Indian Entry into South America According to Mitogenomes', Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 299-311. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msx267

The Paleo-Indian Entry into South America According to Mitogenomes. / Brandini, Stefania; Bergamaschi, Paola; Cerna, Marco Fernando; Gandini, Francesca; Bastaroli, Francesca; Bertolini, Emilie; Cereda, Cristina; Ferretti, Luca; Gomez-Carballa, Alberto; Battaglia, Vincenza; Salas, Antonio; Semino, Ornella; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Torroni, Antonio.

In: Molecular Biology and Evolution, Vol. 35, No. 2, 01.02.2018, p. 299-311.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - The Paleo-Indian Entry into South America According to Mitogenomes

AU - Brandini, Stefania

AU - Bergamaschi, Paola

AU - Cerna, Marco Fernando

AU - Gandini, Francesca

AU - Bastaroli, Francesca

AU - Bertolini, Emilie

AU - Cereda, Cristina

AU - Ferretti, Luca

AU - Gomez-Carballa, Alberto

AU - Battaglia, Vincenza

AU - Salas, Antonio

AU - Semino, Ornella

AU - Achilli, Alessandro

AU - Olivieri, Anna

AU - Torroni, Antonio

PY - 2018/2/1

Y1 - 2018/2/1

N2 - Recent and compelling archaeological evidence attests to human presence ∼14.5 ka at multiple sites in South America and a very early exploitation of extreme high-altitude Andean environments. Considering that, according to genetic evidence, human entry into North America from Beringia most likely occurred ∼16 ka, these archeological findings would imply an extremely rapid spread along the double continent. To shed light on this issue from a genetic perspective, we first completely sequenced 217 novel modern mitogenomes of Native American ancestry from the northwestern area of South America (Ecuador and Peru); we then evaluated them phylogenetically together with other available mitogenomes (430 samples, both modern and ancient) from the same geographic area and, finally, with all closely related mitogenomes from the entire double continent. We detected a large number (N = 48) of novel subhaplogroups, often branching into further subclades, belonging to two classes: those that arose in South America early after its peopling and those that instead originated in North or Central America and reached South America with the first settlers. Coalescence age estimates for these subhaplogroups provide time boundaries indicating that early Paleo-Indians probably moved from North America to the area corresponding to modern Ecuador and Peru over the short time frame of ∼1.5 ka comprised between 16.0 and 14.6 ka.

AB - Recent and compelling archaeological evidence attests to human presence ∼14.5 ka at multiple sites in South America and a very early exploitation of extreme high-altitude Andean environments. Considering that, according to genetic evidence, human entry into North America from Beringia most likely occurred ∼16 ka, these archeological findings would imply an extremely rapid spread along the double continent. To shed light on this issue from a genetic perspective, we first completely sequenced 217 novel modern mitogenomes of Native American ancestry from the northwestern area of South America (Ecuador and Peru); we then evaluated them phylogenetically together with other available mitogenomes (430 samples, both modern and ancient) from the same geographic area and, finally, with all closely related mitogenomes from the entire double continent. We detected a large number (N = 48) of novel subhaplogroups, often branching into further subclades, belonging to two classes: those that arose in South America early after its peopling and those that instead originated in North or Central America and reached South America with the first settlers. Coalescence age estimates for these subhaplogroups provide time boundaries indicating that early Paleo-Indians probably moved from North America to the area corresponding to modern Ecuador and Peru over the short time frame of ∼1.5 ka comprised between 16.0 and 14.6 ka.

KW - Native Americans

KW - Mitochondrial DNA

KW - Mitochondrial genomes

KW - Haplogroups

KW - first peopling of South America

KW - Ecuador

KW - Peru

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DO - 10.1093/molbev/msx267

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JO - Molecular Biology and Evolution

JF - Molecular Biology and Evolution

SN - 0737-4038

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Brandini S, Bergamaschi P, Cerna MF, Gandini F, Bastaroli F, Bertolini E et al. The Paleo-Indian Entry into South America According to Mitogenomes. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 2018 Feb 1;35(2):299-311. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msx267