A closed-loop, indirect, supercritical Carbon Dioxide (sCO2) power cycle is attractive for fossil-fuel, solar thermal and nuclear applications owing to its ability to achieve higher efficiency, and compactness. Commercial Gas Turbines (GT's) are optimised to yield maximum performance with a conventional steam Rankine cycle. In order to explore the full potential of a sCO2 cycle the whole plant performance needs to be considered. This study analyses the maximum performance and cost of electricity for five sCO2 cascaded cycles. The plant performance is improved when the GT pressure ratio is considered as a design variable to a GT to optimise the whole plant performance. Results also indicate that each sCO2 Brayton cycle considered, attained maximum plant efficiency at a different GT pressure ratio. The optimum GT pressure ratio to realise the maximum cost reduction in sCO2 cycle was higher than the equivalent steam Rankine cycle. Performance maps were developed for four high efficient cascaded sCO2 cycles to estimate the specific power and net efficiency as a function of GT turbine inlet temperature and pressure ratio. The result of multi-objective optimisation in the thermal and cost (c$/kWh) domains and the Pareto fronts of the different sCO2 cycles are presented and compared. A novel sCO2 cycle configuration is proposed that provides ideal-temperature glide at the bottoming cycle heat exchangers and the efficiency of this cycle, integrated with a commercial SGT5-4000F machine in lieu of a triple-pressure steam Rankine cycle, is higher by 1.4 percentage point.
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- Department of Engineering and Technology - Senior Lecturer in Thermofluids Engineering
- School of Computing and Engineering
- Centre for Thermofluids, Energy Systems and High-Performance Computing - Member