Genetic skin diseases caused by mutations resulting in diminished protein synthesis could benefit from local substitution of the missing protein. Proteins, however, are excluded from topical applications due to their physicochemical properties. We prepared protein-loaded thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-polyglycerol-based nanogels exhibiting a thermal trigger point at 35 °C, which is favorable for cutaneous applications due to the native thermal gradient of human skin. At ≥ 35 °C, the particle size (~ 200 nm) was instantly reduced by 20% and 93% of the protein was released; no alterations of protein structure or activity were detected. Skin penetration experiments demonstrated efficient intraepidermal protein delivery particularly in barrier deficient skin, penetration of the nanogels themselves was not detected. The proof of concept was provided by transglutaminase 1-loaded nanogels which efficiently delivered the protein into transglutaminase 1-deficient skin models resulting in a restoration of skin barrier function. In conclusion, thermoresponsive nanogels are promising topical delivery systems for biomacromolecules.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine|
|Early online date||16 Mar 2015|
|Publication status||Published - Jul 2015|
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- Department of Biological and Geographical Sciences - Reader in Molecular Biology
- School of Applied Sciences
- Cellular and Molecular Models of Disease Centre - Director
- Centre for Biomarker Research - Associate Member
- Evolutionary Genomics Research Centre - Secondary Membership
- Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery Centre - Associate Member