Time, Temporality, and Internationalization: The Relationship among Point in Time of, Time to, and Speed of International Expansion

Mikael Hilmersson, Martin Johanson, Heléne Lundberg, Stylianos Papaioannou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)


Speed of internationalization is a multidimensional concept with performance consequences, but little is known about the interrelatedness between different time-related concepts. The authors address this deficiency by developing three hypotheses, which are confronted with a data set collected on site at 203 small and medium-sized enterprises. The analysis reveals that (1) the longer the time to internationalization, the lower the speed of international expansion; (2) the earlier the point in time when internationalization starts, the lower the speed of international expansion; and (3) there is an antagonistic interaction effect revealing that the negative effect on the speed of international expansion caused by a longer time to internationalization is moderated by the point in time when internationalization starts. The study contributes to theory by examining the interrelatedness between temporal concepts in the internationalization literature and by showing how the underlying mechanisms influencing internationalization speed change over time. For managers, insights into the importance of time and temporality for successful international expansion are provided.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)22-45
Number of pages24
JournalJournal of International Marketing
Issue number1
Early online date1 Mar 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2017
Externally publishedYes


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