Many wear failures are caused by a combination of fretting wear and sliding wear. In this study, the torsional fretting and torsional sliding wear properties of CuNiAl against 42CrMo4 were comparatively investigated under dry condition using a flat on flat contact tester. Experimental results showed that the sliding friction coefficients declined more dramatically than the fretting friction coefficients when the normal load increased. The fretting wear rate was lower than the sliding wear rate, which was partly due to the solid lubrication effect of the wear debris and strain hardening of the worn surfaces. The dominant wear mechanisms for the fretting tests were oxidation, cracks and delamination, while for the sliding tests were abrasion combined with plastic deformation.