Towards a measure of kindness: An exploration of a neglected interpersonal trait

David Canter, Donna Youngs, Miroslava Yaneva

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Although a growing number of studies indicate the psychological benefits of Kindness no clear definition or distinct measure of Kindness is available. A framework for considering kindness was therefore developed and a 40 item self-report questionnaire (the kindness measure) produced from it. This was completed by a sample of 165 people differing in age, gender and occupation. Responses varied enough to indicate the measure is discriminating between people. Multivariate analysis indicated three distinct aspects of kindness: Benign Tolerance (BT), Empathetic Responsivity (ER), and Principled Proaction (PP). Central to these, a more fundamental form of Kindness was also identified, that we propose to call Core Kindness (CK), that contrasts with Psychopathy, as an important aspect of personality. Differences between men and women and younger and older people lend external validity to the kindness scales and bode well for future more detailed studies. Directions for future research are proposed.

LanguageEnglish
Pages15-20
Number of pages6
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Volume106
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2017

Fingerprint

Occupations
Self Report
Personality
Multivariate Analysis
Psychology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Direction compound

Cite this

@article{950d9bb4c8044afc9d94038c173e41a6,
title = "Towards a measure of kindness: An exploration of a neglected interpersonal trait",
abstract = "Although a growing number of studies indicate the psychological benefits of Kindness no clear definition or distinct measure of Kindness is available. A framework for considering kindness was therefore developed and a 40 item self-report questionnaire (the kindness measure) produced from it. This was completed by a sample of 165 people differing in age, gender and occupation. Responses varied enough to indicate the measure is discriminating between people. Multivariate analysis indicated three distinct aspects of kindness: Benign Tolerance (BT), Empathetic Responsivity (ER), and Principled Proaction (PP). Central to these, a more fundamental form of Kindness was also identified, that we propose to call Core Kindness (CK), that contrasts with Psychopathy, as an important aspect of personality. Differences between men and women and younger and older people lend external validity to the kindness scales and bode well for future more detailed studies. Directions for future research are proposed.",
keywords = "Individual differences, Kindness, Positive psychology, Self-report kindness, Variants of kindness",
author = "David Canter and Donna Youngs and Miroslava Yaneva",
year = "2017",
month = "2",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.paid.2016.10.019",
language = "English",
volume = "106",
pages = "15--20",
journal = "Personality and Individual Differences",
issn = "0191-8869",
publisher = "Elsevier BV",

}

Towards a measure of kindness : An exploration of a neglected interpersonal trait. / Canter, David; Youngs, Donna; Yaneva, Miroslava.

In: Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 106, 01.02.2017, p. 15-20.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Towards a measure of kindness

T2 - Personality and Individual Differences

AU - Canter, David

AU - Youngs, Donna

AU - Yaneva, Miroslava

PY - 2017/2/1

Y1 - 2017/2/1

N2 - Although a growing number of studies indicate the psychological benefits of Kindness no clear definition or distinct measure of Kindness is available. A framework for considering kindness was therefore developed and a 40 item self-report questionnaire (the kindness measure) produced from it. This was completed by a sample of 165 people differing in age, gender and occupation. Responses varied enough to indicate the measure is discriminating between people. Multivariate analysis indicated three distinct aspects of kindness: Benign Tolerance (BT), Empathetic Responsivity (ER), and Principled Proaction (PP). Central to these, a more fundamental form of Kindness was also identified, that we propose to call Core Kindness (CK), that contrasts with Psychopathy, as an important aspect of personality. Differences between men and women and younger and older people lend external validity to the kindness scales and bode well for future more detailed studies. Directions for future research are proposed.

AB - Although a growing number of studies indicate the psychological benefits of Kindness no clear definition or distinct measure of Kindness is available. A framework for considering kindness was therefore developed and a 40 item self-report questionnaire (the kindness measure) produced from it. This was completed by a sample of 165 people differing in age, gender and occupation. Responses varied enough to indicate the measure is discriminating between people. Multivariate analysis indicated three distinct aspects of kindness: Benign Tolerance (BT), Empathetic Responsivity (ER), and Principled Proaction (PP). Central to these, a more fundamental form of Kindness was also identified, that we propose to call Core Kindness (CK), that contrasts with Psychopathy, as an important aspect of personality. Differences between men and women and younger and older people lend external validity to the kindness scales and bode well for future more detailed studies. Directions for future research are proposed.

KW - Individual differences

KW - Kindness

KW - Positive psychology

KW - Self-report kindness

KW - Variants of kindness

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85008708422&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.paid.2016.10.019

DO - 10.1016/j.paid.2016.10.019

M3 - Article

VL - 106

SP - 15

EP - 20

JO - Personality and Individual Differences

JF - Personality and Individual Differences

SN - 0191-8869

ER -