Using small-angle X-ray scattering to investigate the compaction behaviour of a granulated clay

Peter R. Laity, Kofi Asare-Addo, Francis Sweeney, Enes Šupuk, Barbara R. Conway

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The compaction behaviour of a commercial granulated clay (magnesium aluminium smectite, gMgSm) was investigated using macroscopic pressure-density measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray microtomography (XμT) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). This material was studied as a potential compaction excipient for pharmaceutical tabletting, but also as a model system demonstrating the capabilities of SAXS for investigating compaction in other situations.Bulk compaction measurements showed that the gMgSm was more difficult to compact than polymeric pharmaceutical excipients such as spheronised microcrystalline cellulose (sMCC), corresponding to harder granules. Moreover, in spite of using lubrication (magnesium stearate) on the tooling surfaces, rather high ejection forces were observed, which may cause problems during commercial tabletting, requiring further amelioration. Although the compacted gMgSm specimens were more porous, however, they still exhibited acceptable cohesive strengths, comparable to sMCC. Hence, there may be scope for using granular clay as one component of a tabletting formulation.Following principles established in previous work, SAXS revealed information concerning the intragranular structure of the gMgSm and its response to compaction. The results showed that little compression of the intragranular morphology occurred below a relative density of 0. ·. 6, suggesting that granule rearrangements or fragmentation were the dominant mechanisms during this stage. By contrast, granule deformation became considerably more important at higher relative density, which also coincided with a significant increase in the cohesive strength of compacted specimens.Spatially-resolved SAXS data was also used to investigate local variations in compaction behaviour within specimens of different shape. The results revealed the expected patterns of density variations within flat-faced cylindrical specimens. Significant variations in density, the magnitude of compressive strain and principal strain direction were also revealed in the vicinity of a debossed feature (a diametral notch) and within bi-convex specimens. The variations in compaction around the debossed notch, with a small region of high density below and low density along the flanks, appeared to be responsible for extensive cracking, which could also cause problems in commercial tabletting.

LanguageEnglish
Pages149-164
Number of pages16
JournalApplied Clay Science
Volume108
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2015

Fingerprint

X ray scattering
compaction
Compaction
scattering
clay
Excipients
cellulose
magnesium
drug
smectite
Pressure measurement
Aluminum
Pharmaceutical Preparations
fragmentation
Magnesium
remediation
Lubrication
aluminum
scanning electron microscopy
X-ray diffraction

Cite this

@article{b20323b8efdb441cb50c387de2cf0f87,
title = "Using small-angle X-ray scattering to investigate the compaction behaviour of a granulated clay",
abstract = "The compaction behaviour of a commercial granulated clay (magnesium aluminium smectite, gMgSm) was investigated using macroscopic pressure-density measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray microtomography (XμT) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). This material was studied as a potential compaction excipient for pharmaceutical tabletting, but also as a model system demonstrating the capabilities of SAXS for investigating compaction in other situations.Bulk compaction measurements showed that the gMgSm was more difficult to compact than polymeric pharmaceutical excipients such as spheronised microcrystalline cellulose (sMCC), corresponding to harder granules. Moreover, in spite of using lubrication (magnesium stearate) on the tooling surfaces, rather high ejection forces were observed, which may cause problems during commercial tabletting, requiring further amelioration. Although the compacted gMgSm specimens were more porous, however, they still exhibited acceptable cohesive strengths, comparable to sMCC. Hence, there may be scope for using granular clay as one component of a tabletting formulation.Following principles established in previous work, SAXS revealed information concerning the intragranular structure of the gMgSm and its response to compaction. The results showed that little compression of the intragranular morphology occurred below a relative density of 0. ·. 6, suggesting that granule rearrangements or fragmentation were the dominant mechanisms during this stage. By contrast, granule deformation became considerably more important at higher relative density, which also coincided with a significant increase in the cohesive strength of compacted specimens.Spatially-resolved SAXS data was also used to investigate local variations in compaction behaviour within specimens of different shape. The results revealed the expected patterns of density variations within flat-faced cylindrical specimens. Significant variations in density, the magnitude of compressive strain and principal strain direction were also revealed in the vicinity of a debossed feature (a diametral notch) and within bi-convex specimens. The variations in compaction around the debossed notch, with a small region of high density below and low density along the flanks, appeared to be responsible for extensive cracking, which could also cause problems in commercial tabletting.",
keywords = "Compaction behaviour, Mechanical properties, Pharmaceutics, Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), Smectite",
author = "Laity, {Peter R.} and Kofi Asare-Addo and Francis Sweeney and Enes Šupuk and Conway, {Barbara R.}",
year = "2015",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.clay.2015.02.013",
language = "English",
volume = "108",
pages = "149--164",
journal = "Applied Clay Science",
issn = "0169-1317",
publisher = "Elsevier BV",

}

Using small-angle X-ray scattering to investigate the compaction behaviour of a granulated clay. / Laity, Peter R.; Asare-Addo, Kofi; Sweeney, Francis; Šupuk, Enes; Conway, Barbara R.

In: Applied Clay Science, Vol. 108, 01.05.2015, p. 149-164.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Using small-angle X-ray scattering to investigate the compaction behaviour of a granulated clay

AU - Laity, Peter R.

AU - Asare-Addo, Kofi

AU - Sweeney, Francis

AU - Šupuk, Enes

AU - Conway, Barbara R.

PY - 2015/5/1

Y1 - 2015/5/1

N2 - The compaction behaviour of a commercial granulated clay (magnesium aluminium smectite, gMgSm) was investigated using macroscopic pressure-density measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray microtomography (XμT) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). This material was studied as a potential compaction excipient for pharmaceutical tabletting, but also as a model system demonstrating the capabilities of SAXS for investigating compaction in other situations.Bulk compaction measurements showed that the gMgSm was more difficult to compact than polymeric pharmaceutical excipients such as spheronised microcrystalline cellulose (sMCC), corresponding to harder granules. Moreover, in spite of using lubrication (magnesium stearate) on the tooling surfaces, rather high ejection forces were observed, which may cause problems during commercial tabletting, requiring further amelioration. Although the compacted gMgSm specimens were more porous, however, they still exhibited acceptable cohesive strengths, comparable to sMCC. Hence, there may be scope for using granular clay as one component of a tabletting formulation.Following principles established in previous work, SAXS revealed information concerning the intragranular structure of the gMgSm and its response to compaction. The results showed that little compression of the intragranular morphology occurred below a relative density of 0. ·. 6, suggesting that granule rearrangements or fragmentation were the dominant mechanisms during this stage. By contrast, granule deformation became considerably more important at higher relative density, which also coincided with a significant increase in the cohesive strength of compacted specimens.Spatially-resolved SAXS data was also used to investigate local variations in compaction behaviour within specimens of different shape. The results revealed the expected patterns of density variations within flat-faced cylindrical specimens. Significant variations in density, the magnitude of compressive strain and principal strain direction were also revealed in the vicinity of a debossed feature (a diametral notch) and within bi-convex specimens. The variations in compaction around the debossed notch, with a small region of high density below and low density along the flanks, appeared to be responsible for extensive cracking, which could also cause problems in commercial tabletting.

AB - The compaction behaviour of a commercial granulated clay (magnesium aluminium smectite, gMgSm) was investigated using macroscopic pressure-density measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray microtomography (XμT) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). This material was studied as a potential compaction excipient for pharmaceutical tabletting, but also as a model system demonstrating the capabilities of SAXS for investigating compaction in other situations.Bulk compaction measurements showed that the gMgSm was more difficult to compact than polymeric pharmaceutical excipients such as spheronised microcrystalline cellulose (sMCC), corresponding to harder granules. Moreover, in spite of using lubrication (magnesium stearate) on the tooling surfaces, rather high ejection forces were observed, which may cause problems during commercial tabletting, requiring further amelioration. Although the compacted gMgSm specimens were more porous, however, they still exhibited acceptable cohesive strengths, comparable to sMCC. Hence, there may be scope for using granular clay as one component of a tabletting formulation.Following principles established in previous work, SAXS revealed information concerning the intragranular structure of the gMgSm and its response to compaction. The results showed that little compression of the intragranular morphology occurred below a relative density of 0. ·. 6, suggesting that granule rearrangements or fragmentation were the dominant mechanisms during this stage. By contrast, granule deformation became considerably more important at higher relative density, which also coincided with a significant increase in the cohesive strength of compacted specimens.Spatially-resolved SAXS data was also used to investigate local variations in compaction behaviour within specimens of different shape. The results revealed the expected patterns of density variations within flat-faced cylindrical specimens. Significant variations in density, the magnitude of compressive strain and principal strain direction were also revealed in the vicinity of a debossed feature (a diametral notch) and within bi-convex specimens. The variations in compaction around the debossed notch, with a small region of high density below and low density along the flanks, appeared to be responsible for extensive cracking, which could also cause problems in commercial tabletting.

KW - Compaction behaviour

KW - Mechanical properties

KW - Pharmaceutics

KW - Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)

KW - Smectite

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84939966288&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.clay.2015.02.013

DO - 10.1016/j.clay.2015.02.013

M3 - Article

VL - 108

SP - 149

EP - 164

JO - Applied Clay Science

T2 - Applied Clay Science

JF - Applied Clay Science

SN - 0169-1317

ER -