Vaccine Acceptance and Hesitancy among Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in Punjab, Pakistan

Mohamed A. Baraka, Muhammad Nouman Manzoor, Umar Ayoub, Reem M. Aljowaie, Zia Ul Mustafa, Syed Tabish Razi Zaidi, Muhammad Salman, Chia Siang Kow, Mamoon A. Aldeyab, Syed Shahzad Hasan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Vaccine hesitancy is widespread in many parts of the globe, particularly in low–middle-income countries. Therefore, we surveyed a sample of hospitalized COVID-19 patients to assess COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and vaccine hesitancy in a low–middle-income country. A cross-sectional sample of 385 confirmed reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction COVID-19 patients treated at secondary and tertiary care hospitals in Punjab, Pakistan, were analyzed to assess COVID-19 vaccine uptake and vaccine hesitancy. The construct validity and reliability of the 11-item vaccine hesitancy questionnaire were also examined. In addition, multivariate logistic regression was used. The majority of the COVID-19 patients admitted to hospitals were not vaccinated (84%). Of those who were willing to receive vaccination, the majority (55%) considered vaccines an effective way to protect people from COVID-19. However, those who were not willing to receive their COVID-19 vaccine had significantly higher hesitancy than those willing to receive their COVID-19 vaccine. In addition, older hospitalized COVID-19 patients aged 60 years or above (20–29 years: OR 0.10; 95% CI 0.01–0.72, p = 0.001) and patients from urban areas (OR 3.16 95% CI 1.27–7.87, p = 0.013) were more likely to receive the COVID-19 vaccine than younger patients and patients from rural areas. Patients with no formal education had significantly higher hesitancy (OR 5.26; 96% CI 1.85–14.97, p = 0.002) than participants with graduation and above education. More than half of the study’s participants did not trust information shared on social media about COVID-19 vaccines and cited newspapers/news channels as their main source of information. The study provides important insights into COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and the impact of vaccination campaigns. Many unvaccinated COVID-19 patients in hospitals highlight the need for an effective vaccination drive to protect people from acquiring infection and subsequent hospitalization.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1640
Number of pages14
Issue number10
Early online date30 Sep 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2022


Dive into the research topics of 'Vaccine Acceptance and Hesitancy among Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in Punjab, Pakistan'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this