This paper attempts to offer a synthetic overview of the history and geography of competence, tracing its conceptual provenance, contrasting the main competence models and explaining European diversity by differences in labour market regulatory mechanisms and training regimes.1 Major critiques of competence-based approaches are also discussed. In the second part of the paper, competence is considered as a policy imperative in the adoption of competence-based vocational education and training (VET) and outcome-based higher education (HE). The position of supra-state organizations like the International Labour Office (ILO) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is addressed before analysing European level policy developments. The concluding part of the paper considers competence in practice and assesses the limitations imposed by continuing differences in national competence models and inconsistencies in European policy instruments.
|Title of host publication
|The Future of Vocational Education and Training in a Changing World
|Place of Publication
|Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH
|Number of pages
|Published - 26 Apr 2012