Vehicle-to-Grid Aggregator to Support Power Grid and Reduce Electric Vehicle Charging Cost

Sid Ali Amamra, James Marco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

172 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents an optimised bidirectional Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) operation, based on a fleet of Electric Vehicles (EVs) connected to a distributed power system, through a network of charging stations. The system is able to perform day-ahead scheduling of EV charging/discharging to reduce EV ownership charging cost through participating in frequency and voltage regulation services. The proposed system is able to respond to real-time EV usage data and identify the required changes that must be made to the day-ahead energy prediction, further optimising the use of EVs to support both voltage and frequency regulation. An optimisation strategy is established for V2G scheduling, addressing the initial battery State Of Charge (SOC), EV plug-in time, regulation prices, desired EV departure time, battery degradation cost and vehicle charging requirements. The effectiveness of the proposed system is demonstrated using a standardized IEEE 33-node distribution network integrating five EV charging stations. Two case studies have been undertaken to verify the contribution of this advanced energy supervision approach. Comprehensive simulation results clearly show an opportunity to provide frequency and voltage support while concurrently reducing EV charging costs, through the integration of V2G technology, especially during on-peak periods when the need for active and reactive power is high.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8930487
Pages (from-to)178528-178538
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Access
Early online date10 Dec 2019
Publication statusPublished - 23 Dec 2019
Externally publishedYes


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