Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel synthesized from coal (CFT) is an alternative fuel that gives excellent emission performance in compression ignition (CI) engines. In order to study the vibration characteristics, which are important for determining the applicability of the fuel, CFT-diesel blends were tested on a CI engine to acquire vibration signals from the engine head and block. Based on the FFT and continuous wavelet transformation (CWT) analysis, the influence of CFT on the vibration was studied. The results showed that the root mean square (RMS) values of the vibration signal decrease as the proportion of CFT in the blends increases. The CWT results indicated that the vibration energy areas motivated by the pressure shock of transient combustion were weak with increasing CFT proportion for the different frequency bands. The blend of 90% pure petro-diesel and 10% CFT registered the largest RMS value for piston side thrust response, and the RMS of high-frequency pressure oscillation response is greater than that of the main response of combustion, for FT30. Therefore, CFT has the potential to reduce the combustion vibration of the engine at all frequency bands, and there is a possibility that the proportion of blended fuel can be modified to satisfy the vibration characteristics requirements in different frequency bands.