Vibrations of the cylinder liner in internal combustion engines cause coolant cavitation, inducing cavitation erosion. Owing to the lack of a comprehensive understanding of vibration-induced cavitation, the cavitation erosion has been long an unresolved problem influencing engine lifetime and reliability and concerned more in recent years due to lightweight designs. This study proposes a novel pressure prediction method that considers the dynamic properties of a cylinder liner and the pressure amplification effect of a thin water jacket. A pressure amplification factor for a thin water jacket, defined as the ratio of the acoustic pressure to the plane progressive wave pressure generated by the same liner vibration, was derived for the first time. The pressure amplification mechanism in the thin water jackets was revealed. The cavitation risk area on the cylinder liner was predicted, and the effects of acoustic parameters and liner modal properties on cavitation were analysed. The theoretical analyses agreed with the experimental results, proving the accuracy of the proposed method. Moreover, it has found that the thin-layer configuration of the water jacket significantly reduced the vibration threshold for triggering cavitation. Vibration-induced cavitation in cylinder liners is closely related to the liner constraint modes and acoustic properties of the water jackets. The research results enrich the theoretical understanding of vibration-induced cavitation and provide theoretical support for the prediction and mitigation of cavitation erosion in internal combustion engines.