Victimization Profiles, Non-Suicidal Self-Injury, Suicide Attempt, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptomology: Application of Latent Class Analysis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)


Few studies have incorporated multiple dimensions of victimization or examined whether victimization profiles differ by gender. Consequently, the present study sought to extend prior research by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify naturally occurring subgroups of individuals who have experienced victimization, and to test for sex differences. Data from 4,016 females and 3,032 males in the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (APMS) were analyzed. Evidence of the existence of similar victimization subtypes for both males and females emerged, with a three-class solution providing the best fit to the data for both sexes. Furthermore, the classes were labeled “low victimization” (the baseline class; Class 3), the “high victimization class” (Class 1), and “the bullying and domestic violence class” (Class 2) for both males and females. Multinomial logistic regression was used to interpret the nature of the latent classes, or groups, by estimating the associations with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) dimensions, suicide attempt, and non-suicidal self-injury. Although different constellations of victimization experiences did not emerge through the gender-specific analyses, the nature of the associations between class membership and external variables differed between males and females. Findings highlight the heterogeneity of victimization experiences and their relations to functioning, and have implications for policy and practice implications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2412-2429
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Interpersonal Violence
Issue number14
Early online date27 Mar 2015
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2016


Cite this