A comparative Case study of the relationship between Social enterprise and migrant health patterns within India during Covid-19

  • George John

Student thesis: Master's Thesis


Background: Migration is a key livelihood approach adopted by millions in response to natural emergencies, climatic variations, conflicts, loss, education, healthcare, and a better standard of living. However, with the onset of the pandemic, many countries have imposed strict lockdown as a measure to contain the spread which not only affected the livelihood of migrants but also impacted the migration pattern. The impact was also visible in India where hundreds of thousands of migrant workers lost their jobs and started reverse migrating to their place of origin. With no mere support and income, few of them lost life and failed to reach their destination. This made the role of social enterprise more critical especially during Covid -19 as they are perceived to support and meet the needs of the vulnerable. It is clear that social enterprise is going to be a long term sustainable investment therefore, it is high time for governments and private organisations to engage and create a policy framework that defines, explores, strengthens, and promotes the existing social entrepreneurial entities in diverse forms

Aims: This study aims to explore: the impact of health emergencies like COVID-19 on unskilled migrant workers within India; understand how the current pandemic has affected the livelihood of migrants and migration; examine factors influencing reverse migration; explore how social entrepreneurship is playing a key role in addressing those barriers

Methods: This research will explore the experiences of Social entrepreneurs involved in the covid 19 relief work during the pandemic in Delhi, India. This research draws upon the utilisation of comparative case study design and will draw upon an interpretative phenomenological approach

Findings: The majority of the migrants lost their jobs and were marginalised due to the loss of income caused by the diminished job markets. The exodus of migrants was repeatedly observed in lockdowns. There is a lack of investment in the social enterprise sector in India due to their perception of a low scale revenue model. Thus when many social enterprises started working online, this impacted their capability to meet demands and provide service in remote areas.

Conclusion: In the present scenario, the social enterprise would play an important role in the health and social care sector It is therefore high time for the government, policymakers, and social scientists to ensure that these organisations are equipped financially, and logistically to strengthen public health response.
Date of Award27 Sep 2022
Original languageEnglish
SupervisorMichael Snowden (Main Supervisor) & Jamie Halsall (Co-Supervisor)

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