Clinical and formulation insights in managing gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD)

  • Jorabar Nirwan

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis


As a long-term and often debilitating condition, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) may lead to a substantial deterioration in health-related quality of life of individuals due to persistent symptoms of heartburn and acid regurgitation. A comprehensive review presented in this research estimated the global prevalence of GORD to be 13.98% with significant disparities between countries and regions, thus highlighting the substantial global burden of the condition.
Fortunately, multiple pharmacological treatment options are available for the management of GORD symptoms which may be classified as non-raft forming pharmaceutical formulations and raft-forming pharmaceutical formulations. Currently, raft-forming anti-reflux formulations are highly reliant on alginates as a raft-forming polysaccharide which may lead to unreliable material supply. Hence, the aim of this research was to develop a novel material for use in raft-forming anti-reflux formulations for the management of GORD. Initially, a new extraction technique was developed for the sequential extraction of basil seed gum (BSG), basil seed oil and bioethanol with the aim of developing a complete circular bioeconomy. The extracted BSG was then utilised for the development of a raft-forming anti-reflux formulation.
The results revealed that this research successfully developed a new extraction technique for the extraction of basil seed gum (BSG), basil seed oil and bioethanol with optimised conditions of 70°C, pH 8.00 and a rotor speed of 5000 RPM. Comparison of BSG and oil extracted using the new technique with BSG extracted using a conventional technique demonstrated a greater yield of BSG (22.62% vs. 8.31%) and oil (22.1% vs. 6.9%) extracted using the new technique, as well as reduced impurities. The extraction of bioethanol and production of a complete circular bioeconomy also highlighted the economic benefits of the new extraction technique. Finally, the extracted BSG was utilised as a raft-forming polysaccharide in a raft-forming anti-reflux formulation. The developed formulation demonstrated properties suitable for use as a raft-forming anti-reflux formulation and displayed comparable formulation and raft properties to a control formulation containing sodium alginate.
Date of Award16 Sep 2022
Original languageEnglish
SupervisorMuhammad Usman Ghori (Main Supervisor) & Barbara Conway (Co-Supervisor)

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